Hierarchic organization and dualism have opened the way for a study of the body constituents in an attempt to systematize them and their functioning in accordance with these two concepts. In this research, we considered besides the constituents separated in groups as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates and electrolytes also the elements as a source of interesting information.

With most of the manifestations integrated in dualistic patterns, we planned to test the different constituents by noting their influence on these patterns. It was to be expected that some might have selective activity at certain levels of organization and the manifestations related to these levels. This selectivity did become evident but it also turned out that any agent, in sufficient amount, exerted an effect at any level. The problem was to select the manifestation which would respond most readily to the greatest number of agents. This would make comparisons between agents easier and serve as a practical criterion for the start of classification on this dual basis.

The measurement of the influence exerted by various agents upon the second day wound crust pH (s.d.c. pH) proved to be particularly rewarding and was employed in the first part of the investigation. The s.d.c. pH provided an indication not only of acidifying and alkalizing effects but also comparative values for these effects. Later, the influence exerted upon many other manifestations was studied for corroboration. Details of the s.d.c. pH technique and the results obtained are in Note 1.

In studying the elements, we chose, first, simple combinations in which they appear. Each anion was investigated by studying it as it occurred in the respective acid and in compounds in combinations with different cations; each cation was studied in its combinations with different anions.

In this way, we obtained a series of data which enabled us to pinpoint the influence of each element.

The Elements

Using this method, we could determine that elements such as Li, K, Na, Fe, Ni, Zn, Hg, Bi, B, F, CI, Br, I—in sufficient amount—produced in the s.d.c. pH an acidifying effect. The opposite effect—alkalization—was seen for Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cu, Pb, S and Se. It must be emphasized that some elements—such as K, Fe, Zn, Hg, CI in the acidifying group and Ca, Cu, S and Se in the other—produced an intense effect while others had a weak though still clear, action. We must add that Ni and Cr showed a relatively weak acidifying effect. This separation of elements on the basis of acidifying or alkalizing effect agreed with almost all data available about antagonism between elements—for example, the known antagonism between K and Ca, Mg and Cu, and between Mo, Zn and Cu.

As a second step, we related the elements, through their influence upon the s.d.c. pH, to one of the two fundamental offbalances. Those inducing acidification were thus classified as an "inducing offbalance type A," or "anti offbalance type D" or "anti D," while those producing alkalization were called "inducing D," or "anti offbalance type A," or "anti A." Going another step, the acidifying elements were considered to have a tendency toward increasing heterotropy; the alkalizing, a tendency toward increasing homotropy. This led us to attribute to the first, the acidifying group, the qualification "hetero" type, and to the second, the "homo" type. We did not give these designations any other meaning than that indicated above, using them for didactic facility.

The Series

After classifying elements into hetero and homo groups, we studied these groupings in terms of the place of the elements in the periodic chart. We could quickly see that when two or more elements are part of the same series, they also belong to the same group. For example, all elements in the I A and the VII A series are A inducing, or "hetero." The members of the II A and VI A series are D inducing or homo. At this point, we tentatively extended these hetero or homo characters to an entire series after one or more elements in it had been recognized as such. The I A, II B, III A, V A, VII A series and the Fe subseries of VIII were classified as hertero or A inducing, while the II A, I B, VI A series and the Co sub series of VIII were labelled homo or D inducing.

This hetero or homo grouping of the various series permitted us to make other correlations. We could see that among all the series designated as A in the periodic chart, those numbered oddly are hetero type, while those with even numbers are homo type. Among the B series, the opposite is true; those with odd numbers are homo type, while those with even are hetero type. Extrapolating, we could classify all the series according to this criterion. This view was confirmed by the hetero character seen in Cr and especially Mo, and the homo character for Mn.

We could go farther and correlate the above classification, made on the basis of biological properties, with the electronic configurations of the elements. For the members of the A series, those with an odd number of electrons in the valency shell were hetero type, while those with an even number were homo type. Among the B series, this criterion did not hold true. We found, however, that a similar correlation existed if consideration was given not to the valency shell alone but to the sum of the two external shells, the valency and the shell beneath it. This accords with the fact that in the B series elements, the two shells have insufficient electrons to fulfill the quantum numbers. We saw thus that those members of the B series with an odd number for the sum of electrons of the two shells have a homo character, while those with an even number have a hetero. This criterion applies to all members of the B group, including those in the I B and II B series, which have their full quantum quota of electrons in the shell beneath the valency shell. This same criterion was used to classify the three subseries of series VIII shown in the chart. The Fe subseries and Ni sub series were considered hetero type, the Co homo type. This antagonism was seen to be in accord with experimental findings.

These considerations also permitted us to classify the members of the Lanthanium and Actinium Series. Characteristically, all show nonfulfillment of three of their electron shells—the valency and the two shells beneath. We established for these elements a separate series designation, C. Using the sum of the electrons of the three shells, we separated the elements of the C series into hetero and homo categories. Here, the criterion was the opposite of that used for the B series. The members with odd numbers of electrons were considered hetero, those with even numbers homo.

We will discuss later the biological significance of this separation of elements into A, B and C series with their respective one, two and three unfulfilled shells. For the moment, we will only remark that if we consider an even number of electrons as corresponding to a kind of partial fulfillment of quantum forces, especially as compared to an odd number, such partial fulfillment is seen, among all the A series, in those with even numbers (II, IV, VI); among all the B series, in those with odd numbers (I B, III B, V B, VII B); and, among the C series, in those with alternate numbers which can be considered to correspond to even numbers. All these series—with partial fulfillment for the sum of their shells—have a D inducing or anti A, character, and thus a homotropic tendency.