The concept of dynamic oscillatory balance is of great importance in the study of biological phenomena. Coupled factors with opposite properties characterize all constants and are involved both in the processes through which constants are maintained and in their manifestations as well. Recognition of this dualism in all biological phenomena has been of great value in the investigation of normal and abnormal physiology.

According to our concept, dualism results from the alternate, not concomitant, operation of two opposing factors. And, as we have seen, these factors ultimately can be related to the two fundamental forces in nature, homotropic and heterotropic. Thus, in a unified concept, in every phenomenon in which dualism appears, one force will be homotropic the other will be heterotropic. Homotropy is related to fulfillment of clectrostadc forces, and has general coulombian electric character. Heterotropy is quantum like and organizational. Homotropy would keep entities simple. Heterotropy would lead to more organized bonds and to more complex synthesis. In every phenomenon studied, these characteristics of the two fundamental forces have permitted dualism to be recognized and interpreted. The dual istic view has become our basic approach for all of the problems related to matter and, more specifically, to biological entities.

The dualistic concept of intervening forces brings an entirely new light in any analysis in which a graphical representation is different from a straight line. From the curves of spectral analysis of constituents to those of complex phenomena, the existence of oscillations reveals the intervention of opposed forces and offers a valuable mean to study them. This broad approach has a special field of application in biology.

Dualism can be further recognized easily in the manifestations of the biological entities, in their function and in the substances composing them. In the case of the elements, such a dualism can be related to atomic structure and the properties of the electronic shells, as will be seen below. In complex molecules, a simple form of dualism can be seen in acidity and alkalinity, electrophily and nucleophily or, furthermore, in positive and negative electrical characteristics. We will see later, how important dualism is for the different groups of constituents and how, without this dualistic concept, it would be difficult to understand the roles of most of these constituents in biology.

In part, as a consequence of the separation of the constituents into two groups, dualism can be observed easily in the hierarchic organization of higher entities. Dualism appears in the relationship between primary and secondary parts, the first having a more positive character than the second. The study of cancer manifestations under this dualistic aspect has been highly rewarding and is the subject of the following chapters.

In a more concrete step, the dualistic concept has provided new understanding of abnormality.

Normal And Abnormal

A normal entity can be conceived of as one which is able to maintain its constants with their characteristic values, rhythms and intensities by means of the alternate operation of homotropic and heterotropic forces. A normal entity, thus, can be defined as one having constants within the limits that statistically characterize this particular kind of entity. We can define the abnormal entity as one in which a constant's characteristics—average value, rhythm, intensity—are altered. It is alteration, without complete loss of the characteristics of constants, that differentiates abnormality from death. In death the constants themselves are irremediably lost. This definition also distinguishes abnormal from physiological manifestations. In the physiological manifestation, oscillatory movement persists and only its intensity is influenced, usually becoming exaggerated.

As expected from the dualistic concept, abnormal changes can take place in either of two opposite directions and this is a significant fact of abnormality. The two possibilities are inherent in the oscillatory balance characterizing the constant itself. It is the offbalance, resulting from the exaggerated predominance of one of the coupled factors over its antagonist, which leads to the abnormal. Persistent predominance of one factor abnormally affects, and even suppresses, normal oscillatory rhythm.

For each normal condition, then, two opposite abnormalities are possible. By relating the abnormal condition to one or more altered concepts, and the alteration in each constant to one of the dual changes possible, a new systematized analysis of the abnormal becomes feasible. The large number of constants which compose each entity and which can become abnormal help not only to explain the great variety of abnormalities but also offer a means of obtaining analytical pictures of disease.

It is with this approach that we have tried to study pathological conditions, with special emphasis on cancer. This study is presented in the following pages.