After recognizing a dual pattern in most manifestations of cancer, the problem was to consider the relationship between this dualism and cancer itself.

One critical observation was that a pattern in a given patient may change. During the evolution of the condition, seldom is the change from abnormal to normal, but usually from one abnormal to the opposite abnormal pattern. This fact has a special importance as will be seen later. In some cases, even the immediate, direct cause of such changes could be established.

The following case is illustrative.

Mr. S. L., a patient with cancer of the prostate and metastatic destruction of half of the sacrum, was in very severe pain. Study of variations in pain intensity and in urinary pH, as well as the response to acidifying and alkalinizing substances, indicated that the pain was of a typical acid pattern. The patient started radiotherapy and pain decreased with almost every treatment, until after a few sessions it had disappeared completely. Out of bed and feeling well, he continued the treatment. However, at about the twelfth session, pain again appeared and thereafter increased with each treatment. After five more sessions, he was back in bed and suffering such unbearable pain that radiotherapy had to be discontinued. At that time, a new analysis of the pattern of pain showed that it had changed from the original acid to alkaline. It was hypothesized that this change might be the result of irradiation. Study of other cases, after irradiation, has confirmed the hypothesis.

Changes of pain from an acid to an alkaline pattern also were observed in patients who had suffered shock or serious pyrogenic infections. Viral infection such as flu, or even smallpox vaccination, seemed to induce an opposite change—from alkaline to acid. Changes obtained under the influence of therapeutic agents were frequently observed and will be discussed later.

The dual pattern seen for most cancer manifestations was integrated into the concept of the disease as a complex organized condition that develops through progressive participation of hierarchically superior levels of the organization. From a clinical point of view, such participation corresponds to the successive addition of new manifestations to a previously less complex condition. According to their levels, these "Added Factors" correspond to prolonged youth or rapid cellular aging, to acid or alkaline pain, to blood and urinary analytical data fixed in one or another of two opposite patterns. Dualism is the principal characteristic shared in common by all these progressively added manifestations.

In trying to understand this dualism and its significance, we had to consider again the place of dualism in the general organization of nature. The study of reactivity in nature has led to the recognition that a basic dualism exists—that the forces operating in nature can be separated into two opposite groups for almost all the intervening factors. Forces which would tend to lead toward annihilation of differences and produce a state of maximum entropy or homotropy or the antagonistic forces which tend to maintain and increase differences and lead to more complex organization —and are thus catalogued as negatively entropic, ectropic or heterotropic —would thus appear with each new added factor when a higher hierarchic entity is realized. For this reason, they will appear especially manifest for the same added factors intervening under abnormal conditions. Dualism consequently concerns the manifestations progressively added. The result is seen in the alteration of the oscillatory movement with alternate predominance of one and then the other of the antagonistic forces for these added factors. This fact would explain the dualism seen especially in abnormalities. It also explains the intervention of the dual patterns mentioned above.

Table IV. Manifestations

Level

Offbalance "A"

Offbalance "D"

Cellular

Prolonged cellular youth

Less differentiated cells, especially of connective tissues Increased amount of connective tissue

Rapid cellular aging

More differentiated cells, especially of connective tissues

Decreased amount of connective tissue

Tissular

Increased lymphatic tissue

Low oxido reduction potential processes Low chloride content Local acidosis Acid pattern symptoms

(Pain, dyspnea, itching, etc.)

Decreased lymphatic tissue High oxido reduction potential processes High chloride content Local alkalosis Alkaline pattern symptoms

(Pain, dyspnea, itching, etc.)

Organic

Somnolence

Constipation

Polyuria

Exophtalmia

Nasal pH below 6.5

Slow absorbtion of skin wheal

Insomnia

Diarrhea

Oliguria

Enophtalmia

Nasal pH above 6.5

Rapid absorbtion of skin wheal

Systemic

Blood

Leucocytosis Eosinophilia High color index Low potassium content Low R.C. sed. rate No C reactive protein

Blood

Leucopenia

Eosinopenia

Low color index

High potassium content

High R.C. sed. rate

High C reactive protein

Urine

Low specific gravity High pH

High CI, Na excretion

Low SH, Ca, phosphate, sulfate excretion High surface tension Death in coma

Urine

High specific gravity Low pH

Low CI, Na excretion High SH, Ca, phosphate, sulfate excretion Low surface tension Presence of oxidizing substances Death while conscious

Dualism becomes even more important when it can be seen to play a capital role in the mechanism through which agents act upon abnormal conditions. Originally, the dualistic actions of agents could be ascertained through the changes induced in pain and various other patterns. It has consequently been possible to classify the effect of various therapeutic agents according to their influence upon these patterns and, through this more readily measurable influence, on the fundamental offbalances themselves.

At the same time, the study of the influence exerted by various agents upon these patterns, which is presented later, has posed the problem of precisely what effects upon these patterns are produced by the substances which are body constituents. And this led us to a third basic concept dealing with the important role played by body constituents and, in particular, by the lipids.