This section is from the book "The Home Hand-Book of Domestic Hygiene and Rational Medicine. Volume 2.", by J. H. Kellogg, M.D.. Also available from Amazon: The Home Hand-Book of Domestic Hygiene and Rational Medicine, Volume 2.
The hands do not often become deformed to any great extent, unless in consequence of some serious accident or long-continued disease, as rheumatism or paralysis. But the contrary of this is true of the feet. In fact, it is almost impossible to find a properly shaped foot in any individual who has ever worn shoes or boots. Figs. 426 and 427 represent the outline of the sole of a healthy foot. In Fig. 427 may also be seen in dotted lines the outline of a narrow square-toed shoe. As will be readily seen, it is impossible for a well formed foot to be crowded into such a narrow space without injury. The character of the injury inflicted upon the foot is shown in Figs. 428, 429, and 430, which illustrate similar deformities greatly increased by wearing improperly made shoes for a long time. Fig. 431 also illustrates the same. Not very much worse are the deformities produced by the absurd custom in vogue in China, of bandaging the feet, illustrated in Figs. 432 and 433. Figs. 434, 435 and 436 illustrate improperly constructed shoes, which are very certain to produce diseases of the feet, if worn any great length of time. In Figs. 437 and 438 are illustrated a form of shoe recommended by Prof. Meyer, the most scientific and reliable writer on this subject Although shoes made after this style could not be said to be particularly beautiful, they will certainly be much better adapted to the shape of the feet, and hence much more conducive to the comfort and health of the feet, than any style of shoes fashionable at the present day.
Fig. 426. Outline of Sole of Normal Foot.
Fig. 427. Sole of Normal Foot, also showing relative size of a fashionably toed shoe.
Fig. 428. Effect of Wearing Narrow Toed Shoe.
Figs. 429 to 431, Deformed Feet from improperly made shoes.
Fig. 432. Deformity of Chinese Woman's Foot, produced by bandaging.
Fig. 433. Outline of Sole of Chinese Woman's Foot.
Flgs. 434 to 436, Outlines of Improperly Made Shoes.
Figs. 437 and 438, Outline of Soles of Prof. Meyer's Shoe.
This a deformity in which the legs are bowed outward, as shown in Fig. 440, which also illustrates an excellent form of brace to be worn in these cases. By the application of the brace very early in life, the difficulty may be overcome. Surgical operations have also been devised for the purpose, but these should not be resorted to when the difficulty can be cured by means of a properly adjusted brace. The principal cause of bow-legs is encouraging children to learn to walk before their limbs are sufficiently strong to sustain the weight of the body without injury.
Fig. 440. Brace for Bandy Leg.