The morbid conditions of the liver considered under this head are wholly attributable to the abuse of the organ by tight lacing. Figs. 291, 292, 293, and 294, are representations of livers found in patients in post-mortem examinations, which illustrate the terrible effects of following the custom of constricting the waist. The custom is not wholly confined to the female sex as might be supposed. In Fig. 291 the organ is so distorted as to be scarcely recognizable. The lower portion has been crowded down into a conical form, and the whole organ has evidently been so compressed as to render the proper performance of its functions impassible.

Fig. 291. Liver Distorted by Tight Lacing.

Fig. 291. Liver Distorted by Tight Lacing.

In Fig. 292 the compression has been applied somewhat differently, and consequently a different effect has been produced, the organ having been nearly cut in two by the continuous pressure brought to bear upon it.

Fig. 292. Liver Deformed by Compression.

Fig. 292. Liver Deformed by Compression.

Fig. 293 represents a liver which has been divided into three parts or lobes, in the lower of which can be seen several enlarged veins, branches of the portal vein, which have become enormously distended by the long-continued pressure.

Fig. 293. Liver Showing Effects of Compression.

Fig. 293. Liver Showing Effects of Compression.

Fig. 294 illustrates a case in which the pressure applied about the waist was so great that the liver was compressed entirely out of its normal position, being crowded down wholly below the ribs, until its rounded surface, which should be presented upward, is presented outward against the abdominal wall, giving the deceptive appearance of enormous enlargement.

Fig. 294. Liver Displaced by Compression.

Fig. 294. Liver Displaced by Compression.

When pursuing a special course of study in this class of diseases in Bellevue Hospital several years ago, we encountered the case of a woman in whom the condition of the liver was as represented in Fig. 295. The constriction of the waist had been so great that the liver was almost literally divided in two. The case was in fact a typical one of "tight-lace fissure of the liver."

Fig. 295. Liver Almost Divided in Two.

Fig. 295. Liver Almost Divided in Two.

It is stated on good authority that displacements and distortions of the liver in consequence of tight lacing are exceedingly common. Indeed, it is impossible to believe that any liver could be subjected to the abnormal conditions necessitated by the modem fashionable dress without being compressed out of its natural shape and position. The only remedy, of course, for displacements and distortions is to discontinue the cause and to employ such means as will, so far as possible, restore the distorted parts to their normal condition. In the majority of cases this can be accomplished only to a slight degree, as the distortion becomes permanent after it has existed for a number of years.

As before remarked, women are not the only transgressors in this direction. The habit of sustaining the pantaloons by buttoning them tightly about the waist, or holding them by means of a tightly buckled belt, is a very bad one, and may produce as much distortion of the liver as tight-lacing in ladies. Some years ago, the injury resulting from the general prevalence of the habit in the Russian army became so apparent that a royal edict was issued prohibiting it.