Inflammation of bone may involve simply the periosteum, when it is known as periostitis. It occurs most often in young persons. It is accompanied by a chill, high fever, and severe pain of the affected part There is marked swelling, but no redness. The skin is tense, and usually pits on pressure with the finger. Every jar is painful. When suppuration occurs, the swelling increases, the skin becomes red, and the nearest joint becomes swollen and painful. After ten or twelve days, softening of the part indicates the presence of pus. Periostitis occurring at the end of the thumb or finger is termed a felon. Periostitis often involves inflammation of the bone itself, which also generally occurs in young persons, and is most often the result of injury. The symptoms are intense aching pain at the seat of inflammation, puffy swelling, with an abrupt margin which advances as the disease continues, fever, great restlessness, and, in severe cases, delirium.

It is generally difficult to distinguish between inflammation of the bone and periostitis. The treatment for both forms of inflammation is essentially the same, and consists of applications of ice at the start, with elevation of the affected part. If the disease continues, not being checked by treatment, a surgeon should be called to lance the bone.