The old treatment, by applying antimony, mercury, and blisters, was in the highest degree unsuccessful. According to Tanner, one-half the persons treated by this plan died. The disease is a very severe one and sometimes difficult to manage, but with proper treatment from the first, few cases will prove fatal.

Apply hot water to the throat by means of sponges or flannels wrung out in hot water as directed for acute catarrh of the larynx. If relief is not quickly secured, exchange the hot applications for cold ones, and if some relief is obtained, keep the cold constantly applied. If necessary, employ ice compresses. This measure must be employed thoroughly to be of any value whatever. Used early in the disease, it will prevent the formation of the false membrane. If it is not employed early enough or with sufficient thoroughness to accomplish this, measures must be employed to secure an early separation of the false membrane from the mucous membrane of the larynx. For this purpose hot and cold applications should be applied to the throat, and the patient should be made to inhale the vapor of hot water, as hot as it can be borne and as large a portion at a time as possible. The vapor may be inhaled through the apparatus for the purpose, or from a tea-kettle or tea-pot. A paper cone may be arranged in such a way as to conduct the steam to the patients mouth. A very excellent method of generating steam for this purpose is to slake lime in a tea-pot, and have the patient inhale the vapor through the nozzle. We have used this method on several occasions with complete success. The vapor of warm vinegar is also sometimes useful. Among the most serviceable remedies for causing sep aration of the false membrane may be mentioned lime-water, vinegar, and a strong solution of chlorate of potash taken by means of an atomizer. The chlorate of potash solution should be hot when taken, and the patient should inhale it a large part of the time.

It is of the greatest importance that the temperature of the room in which the patient is placed should be carefully regulated. The air should also be kept thoroughly saturated with moisture by boiling water or by means of slaking lime. The latter method has been frequently employed with success, the lime being placed in a tub near the center of the room or near the patient, and water applied to it. Sponging of the hands, feet, arms, and limbs is also recommended for this disease.

If the patient becomes so greatly exhausted that he loses the ability to cough, although the membrane may be separated sufficiently to allow expectoration, means should be adopted to restore the patient as much as possible. Dr. Niemeyer recommends placing the patient in a warm bath and pouring cold water on his head, the back of the neck, or spine, for the purpose of exciting increased nervous activity, particularly to excite cough, thus enabling the patient to throw out the loosened membrane. In case all other measures fail, and suffocation seems impending, as shown by increased difficulty in breathing, blueness of the skin, etc., the surgical operation of laryngotomy or tracheotomy should be performed. This consists in making an opening into the larynx or trachea and passing in a silver tube through which the patient can breathe. Life has sometimes been saved in this manner.