Undoubtedly the great fatality of this disease is in a large degree attributable to improper treatment or in neglecting to employ efficient measures with sufficient promptness. Mild cases require only a simple diet, thorough ventilation, the use of tepid sponge baths, cool compresses to the bowels or wet-sheet packs, and perhaps cool enemas, and other measures which have been recommended for reducing the temperature in fever, together with good nursing. If the eruption is a little slow in making its appearance, or shows a tendency to recede after it has appeared, a warm full bath and sponging of the skin with hot water or hot and cold sponging, together with warm drinks, are the measures to be employed. When the other symptoms are very severe, ice compresses should be applied to the throat if possible, and the patient should be given pieces of ice to hold in the mouth. When the breath is very foul, a solution of chlorate of potash two or three drams to the pint, or permanganate of potash half a teaspoonful to the pint of water, may be used as a gargle. Carbolic acid in the proportion of a dram to a pint of warm water is also an excellent gargle. The other gargles recommended for diphtheria are also indicated in this disease when the inflammation is high, and swelling and irritation of the throat become excessive.

Rheumatic symptoms in the joints require the use of the hot pack or the warm full bath. In a majority of cases the principal danger is from the high temperature. This should be vigorously combated by means of the cold pack, tepid sponging, and other measures already indicated. The popular idea that the eruption "may be driven in" by this method of treatment is a mistaken one. The same remarks made respecting water treatment in measles are equally applicable to this disease. When dropsy occurs from inflammation of the kidneys, the same treatment should be employed as elsewhere recommended for acute nephritis. The patient should be allowed no solid food, and if there are symptoms of suppression of urine, no food at all should be allowed for twelve hours. The patient should be induced to drink as much water as possible, and the skin should be kept in a state of active prespiration by means of warm packs. The use of meat should be strictly prohibited until the symptoms of kidney disease have passed away. If vigorous treatment is employed at the very beginning of the disease, death will rarely occur, notwithstanding the serious character of this affection.

Owing to the gravity of this disease and its infectious and contagious character, the most thorough measures should be taken to secure isolation of the patient during the attack and thorough disinfection of the sick-room. No one should bo allowed to see the patient during his illness except the nurses and those who are protected from the disease by having previously suffered from it. At the very beginning of the disease, window curtains, carpets, and all other articles which may afford a hiding-place for the infectious germs, must be removed from the room to be occupied by the patient. All clothes used about the patient should be disinfected by dipping them into a solution of chloride or sulphate of zinc, or should be burned. It is a good plan to keep a tub two-thirds filled with a strong disinfecting solution (see section on "Disinfection") into which cloths soiled by use about the patient may be thrown as soon as used. It should be recollected that the patient is more likely to communicate the disease during the period of desquamation, when the skin is peeling off, than at any other time, as the little particles of dead skin which float in the air about the patient will communicate the disease if inhaled. This danger may be in some degree obviated by giving the patient frequent warm sponge baths during the attack, and during the period of desquamation anointing the skin with vaseline, sweet oil, lard, or some other unguent twice a day.

When the patient has entirely recovered, the sick-room and everything contained in it, or which may have become infected by the contagious disease, should be disinfected by means of disinfecting lotions, and fumigations with burning sulphur or chlorine gas. Sulphur is much more convenient to use than chlorine, and is equally effective.