In the treatment of persons in whom life seems to be extinct in consequence of drowning, the two most essential measures are, the restoration of breathing and of heat. Life cannot be long sustained without respiration, neither can the vital forces long continue their functions when the temperature of the body is very greatly lowered. When respiration is suspended, the greatest source of production of heat is cut off, so that the patient may die from the depressing influence of cold, although respiration might be fully restored by the use of proper means. The restoration of breathing must of course be considered as the first essential; but attention should be given to the restoration of heat with almost equal promptness and thoroughness, The following rules for the treatment of the drowned were prepared by the committee on accidents of the State Board of Health of Michigan, for general circulation. They are so concise, and the measures of treatment recommended so efficient, that we are glad to quote them without modification, as follows:

"Rule 1. - Remove all Obstructions to Breathing. Instantly loosen or cut apart all neck and waist bands; turn the patient on his face, with the head down hill; stand astride the hips with your face toward his head, and, locking your fingers together under his belly, raise the body as high as you can without lifting the forehead off the ground (Fig. 381), and give the body a smart jerk to remove the mucus from the throat and water from the windpipe; hold the body suspended long enough to slowly count one, two, three, four, five, repeating the jerk more gently two or three times.

Fig. 381. Treatment of the Drowned.

Fig. 381. Treatment of the Drowned.

"Rule 2. - Place the patient face downward, and maintaining all the while your position astride the body, grasp the points of the shoul ders by the clothing, or if the body is naked, thrust your fingers into the armpits, clasping your thumbs over the points of the shoulders, and raise the chest as high as you can (Fig. 382) without lifting the head quite off the ground, and hold it long enough to slowly count one, two, three.

Fig. 382. Treatment of the Drowned Part 2.

Fig. 382. Treatment of the Drowned Part 2.

Replace him on the ground, with his forehead on his flexed arm, the neck straightened out, and the mouth and nose free. Place your el bows against your knees, and your hands upon the sides of his chest (Fig 383) over the lower ribs, and press downward and inward with increasing force long enough to slowly count one, two. Then suddenly let go, grasp the shoulders as before and raise the chest (Fig. 382); then press upon the ribs, etc. (Fig. 383). These alternate movements should be repeated ten to fifteen times a minute for an hour at least, unless breathing is restored sooner. Use the same regularity as in natural breathing.

Fig. 383. Treatment of the Drowned Part 3.

Fig. 383. Treatment of the Drowned Part 3.

"Rule 3. - After breathing has commenced, restore the animal heat. Wrap him in warm blankets, apply bottles of hot water, hot bricks, or anything to restore heat. Warm the head nearly as fast as the body, lest convulsions come on. Rubbing the body with warm cloths or the hand, and slapping the fleshy parts, may assist to restore warmth, and the breathing also. If the patient can surely swallow, give hot coffee, tea, milk, or a little hot sling. Give spirits sparingly, lest they produce depression. Place the patient in a warm bed, and give him plenty of fresh air; keep him quiet.

"Avoid delay. A moment may turn the scale for life or death. Dry ground, shelter, warmth, stimulants, etc., at this moment are nothing,-artificial breathing is everything,-is the one remedy,-all others are secondary.

"Do not stop to remove wet clothing before efforts are made to restore breathing. Precious time is wasted, and the patient may be fatally chilled by exposure of the naked body, even in summer. Give all your attention and effort to restore breathing by forcing air into, and out of, the lungs. If the breathing has just ceased, a smart slap on the face, or a vigorous twist of the hair will sometimes start it again, and may be tried incidentally, as may, also, pressing the finger upon the root of the tongue.

Before natural breathing is fully restored, do not let the patient lie on his back unless some person holds the tongue forward. The tougue by falling back may close the windpipe and cause fatal choking.

"If several persons are present, one may hold the head steady, keeping the neck nearly straight; others may remove wet clothing, replacing at once clothing which is dry and warm; they may also chafe the limbs, and thus promote the circulation.

"Prevent friends from crowding around the patient and excluding fresh air; also from trying to give stimulants before the patient can swallow. The first causes suffocation; the second, fatal choking.

"Do not give up too soon. You are working for life. Any time within two hours you may be on the very threshold of success without there being any sign of it."