Description. -- This is a perennial plant, the root of which consists of numerous strong fibres. The leaves are all radical, on long, hairy petioles, smooth, evergreen, cordate at base, the new ones appearing later than the flowers. The flowers appear almost as soon as the snow leaves the ground in the spring. Fruit an ovate achenium.
    History. -- These plants are common to the United States, growing in woods and upon elevated situations--the former, which is the most common, being found on sides of hills, exposed to the north, and the latter on the southern aspect. The plants yield their virtues to water.
    Properties and Uses. -- It is a mild, mucilaginous astringent, and is freely used in infusion, in fevers, diseases of the liver; and for bleeding from the lungs, coughs, etc., it is a most valuable curative.
    Dose. -- Infusion taken ad libitum.