Sthávara-poison: its Source M. T.) -

There are two kinds of poison viz., that obtained from immobile things (Sthavara) and that obtained from mobile creatures (Jangama). The sources of the Sthávara (vegetable and mineral) poison are ten, while those of the Jangama (animal) poison are sixteen in number. The ten sources from which a Sthávara poison may be obtained are roots, leaves, fruits, flowers, bark, milky exudations, pith (Sára, gum (Niryása) bulb and a mineral or metal (Dhâtu ). 2-3.

Names Of The Different Vegetable And Mineral Poisons

Klitaka, As'va-mára, Gunjâ, Subandha *, Gargaraka, Karagháta, Vidyuch-chhikhá and Vijayâ are the eight root-poisons Iisha-Patriká, Lambá, Avaradáruka, Karambha and Mahá-Karambha are the five leaf-poisons The fruits of Kumudvati, Renuká, Karambha, Mahá-Karambha, Karkotaka, Venuka, Khadyotaka, Charmari, Ibha gandhá, Sarpa-gháti, Nandana and Sára-páka, numbering twelve in all, are the twelve fruit-poisons. The flowers of Vetra, Kadamba, Vallija (Nárácha - D. R), Karambha and Mahákarambha are the five flower-poisons. The bark, pith and gum of Antra-páchaka, Kartariya, Sauriyaka, Kara-gháta, Karambha, Nandana and Varátaka are the seven bark-poisons, pith-poisons and gum-poisons The milky exudations of Kumudagkni, Snuhi and lála Kshiri are poisons and arc known as the three Kshira-Vishas, Phenásma-bhasma ( white arsenic and Haritála ( yellow orpiment ) are the two mineral poisons. Kála-kuta, Vatsa-nabha, Sarshapaka, Palaka, Kardamaka, Vairataka, Mustaka, S'ringi-visha, Prapaun darika, Mulaka, Háláhala, Mahá-visha and Karkataka, numbering thirteen in all, arc the bulb-poisons Thus the number of poisons obtained from the vegetable and mineral world (Sthávara) amount to fifty-five in all. 4-11.

* Lambá, according to Gayi - D. R.

Metrical Text

There are four kinds of Vatsa-nábha poisons, two kinds of Mustaka and six kinds of Sarshapaka. The remaining ones have no different species. I 2.

Effects Of Poison On The Human Organism

Root-poisons or poisonous roots produce a twisting pain in the limbs, delirium and loss of consciousness. A leaf-poison or poisonous leaf gives rise to yawning, difficult breathing and a twisting pain in the limbs. A fruit poison is attended with a swelling of the scrotum, a burning sensation in the body and an aversion to food. A flower-poison gives rise to vomiting, distensions of the abdomen and loss of consciousness. A bark-poison, or pith-poison, or gum-poison is marked by a fetour in the mouth, roughness of the body, headache and a secretion of Kapha (mucus from the mouth). The effects of the poisonous milky exudations (of a tree, plant or creeper) are foaming from the mouth, loose stools (diarrhoea) and a curvature (drawing back) of the tongue, whereas a mineral poison gives rise to pain in the heart, fainting and a burning sensation in the region of the palate. All these are slow poisons proving fatal only after a considerable length of time. 13.