We have briefly said before that there are sixteen situations of poison in the bodies of venomous animals. Now we shall deal with them in detail. 2.

Locations: - An animal poison is usually situated in the following parts, viz; the sight, breath, teeth, nails, urine, stool, semen, saliva, menstrual blood, stings, belching *, anus, bones, bile, bristles (Suka) and in the dead body of an animal. 3.

Of these, the venom of celestial serpents lies in their sight and breath, that of the terrestrial ones in their fangs while that of cats, dogs, monkeys, Makara (alligators?), Frogs, Páka-matsyas (a kind of insect), lizards (Godha), mollusks (Snails), Prachalákas (a kind of insect), domestic lizards, four-legged insects and of any other species of flies such as mosquitoes, etc., lies in their teeth and nails. 4.

The venom of a Chipita, Pichchataka, Kasháya-vásika, Sarshapa-vásika, Totaka, Varchah-kita, Kaun-dilyaka and such-like insects lies in their urine and excreta. The poison of a mouse or rat lies in its semen, while that of a Lutá (spider) lies in its saliva, urine, excreta, fangs, nails, semen and menstrual fluid (ovum). 5 - 6.

The venom of a scorpion, Visvambhara, Rájiva-fish, Uchchitinga (cricket) and a sea-scorpion lies in their

* Vriddha-Vágbhata reads Alaji-S'onite in place of "Visardhita." saliva. The venom of a Chitra-s'irah, Saráva, Kurdisata, Dáruka, Arimedaka and Sáriká-mukha, lies in their fangs, belching, stool and urine. The venom of a fly, a Kanabha and leeches lies in their fangs. The poison lies in the bones of an animal killed by any poison, as well as in those of a snake, a Varati and a fish *. The poison lies in the bile of a Sakuli, a Rakta-ráji and a Cháraki fish. The poison lies in the bristles (Suka) and the head of a Sukshma-tunda, an Uchchitinga (cricket), a wasp, a centipede (Satapadi), a Suka, a Vala bhika, a Sringi and a bee. The dead body of a snake or an insect is poisonous in itself. Animals not included in the above list should be deemed as belonging to the fang-venomed species i.e., the poison lies in their fangs. 7 - 11.

Memorable Verses

The enemies of a sovereign poison the pastures, water, roads, food-stuffs and smoke (Dhuma) of their country and even charge the atmosphere with poison in the event of his making incursions into their country. The poisonous nature of the foregoing things should be ascertained from the following features and should be duly purified (before use). 12-A.

Characteristic Features And Purifications Of Poisoned Water, Etc

A sheet of poisoned water becomes slimy, strong-smelling, frothy and marked with (black-coloured) lines on the surface Frogs and fish living in the water die without any apparent cause. Birds and beasts that live (in the water and) on its shores roam about wildly in confusion (from the effects of poison), and a man, a horse or an elephant, by bathing in this (poisoned) water is afflicted

with vomiting, fainting, fever, a burning sensation and swelling of the limbs. These disorders (in men and animals) should be immediately attended to and remedied and no pains should be spared to purify such poisoned water. The cold ashes, of Dhava, As'va-karna, Asana, Páribhadra, Pátalá, Siddhaka, Mokshaka, Rája-druma and Somavalka burnt together, should be cast into the poisoned pool or tank, whereby its water would be purified; as an alternative, an Anjali-measure (half a seer) of the said ashes cast in a Ghata-measure * (sixty-four seers) of the required water would lead to its purification. 12-B.

* Some readCharacteristic Features And Purifications Of Poiso 200210 (Varati fish) as one word - the name of a species offish.

A poisoned ground or stone-slab, landing stage or desert country gives rise to swellings in those parts of the bodies of men, bullocks, horses, asses, camels and elephants that may chance to come in contact with them. In such cases a burning sensation is felt in the affected parts and the hair and nails (of these parts) fall off. In these cases, the poisoned surface should be purified by sprinkling it over with a solution of Atlanta and Sarva-gandha (the scented drugs) dissolved in wine (Sura) †, or with (an adequate quantity of) black clay ‡ dissolved in water or with the decoc tion of Vidanga, Páthá, and Katabhi. 12. C.

Poisoned hay or fodder or any other poisoned foodstuff produces lassitude, fainting, vomiting, diarrhoea or even death (of the animal partaking thereof). Such cases should be treated with proper anti-poisonous medicines

according to the indications of each case. As an alternative, drums and other musical instruments smeared with plasters of anti-poisonous compounds (Agadas.) * should be beaten and sounded (round them). Equal parts of silver (Tára), mercury (Sutára) and Indra-Gopa insects with Kuru-Vinda † equal in weight to that of the entire preceding compound, pasted with the bile of a Kapila (brown) cow, should be used as a paste over the musical instruments (in such cases). The sounds of such drums, etc. (pasted with such anti-poisonous drugs) are said to destroy the effects of even the most dreadful poison. 12-D.

* Jejjata explains 'Ghata' as a pitcher, i.e., a pitcher-ful of water.

† Dallana holds that the use of the plural number here inCharacteristic Features And Purifications Of Poiso 200211 means that honey, treacle, etc. should also be used with wine.

‡ Dallana says that some read ' earth of an ant-hill' in place of 'black clay for its anti-poisonous properties.