The Pittam (fiery or thermogenic) and Sleshma (lunar principles of the body, the bodily Váyu, the three primary qualities of Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas (adhesion, cohesion and disintegration), the five sense organs, and the Self (Karma-Purusha) are the preserver of the life (Pránáh) of the Foetus. 2.

Folds Of Skin

Seven folds or layers of covering (Tvaka - skin) are formed and deposited on the rapidly transforming product of the combination of (semen) Sukra and Sonita (fertilized ovum) which have been thus charged with the individual Soul or Self in the same manner as layers (of cream) are formed and deposited on the surface of (boiling) milk. Of these the first fold or layer is called Avabhásini (reflecting) as it serves to reflect all colours and is capable of being tinged with the hues of all the five material principles of the body. The thickness of this fold measures eighteen-twentieth of a Vrihi * (rice grain) and it is the seat of skin diseases, such as Sidhma, Padmakantaka etc. The second fold (from the surface) is called Lahitá; it measures a sixteen-twentieth of a Vrihi and is the seat of such (cutaneous affections; as Tilakálaka, Nyachcha and Vyanga etc. The third fold or layer is called Svetá, which measures in thickness, a twelve-twentieth of a Vrihi, and forms the seat of such diseases as Ajagalli, Charmadala, and Mas'aka etc. The fourth fold or layer is called Támrá measuring an eight-twentieth of a Vrihi and forms the seat of such diseases as the various kinds of Kilàsa and Kushtha etc. The fifth fold or layer is called Vedini, measuring in thickness a five-twentieth of a Vrihi and forms the seat of Kushtha, Visarpa, etc. The sixth fold or layer is called Rohini, which is of equal thickness as a Vrihi (grain), and is the seat of Granthi, Apachi, Arvuda, Slipada and Gala-ganda etc. The seventh fold or layer is called Mánsa-dhará twice a Vrihi in thickness and is the seat of Bhagandara, Vidradhi, and Ars'a etc. These dimensions should be understood to hold good of the skin of the fleshy parts of the body, and not of the skin on the forehead, or about the tips of the fingers, inasmuch as there is a surgical dictum to the effect that an incision as deep as the thickness of the thumb may be made into the region of the abdomen with the help of a Vrihi-mukha (instrument). 3

* The complexion of a person is due to this first layer; and as the colour of an opaque body is due to the rays that are reflected from its surface, this layer is rightly named Avabhásini or reflecting layer.

** The text runs "Vriherashtadashabhága," which means eighteen (or so many) parts of a Vrihi; and Dalian comments that "Vrihi" stands for a measure equal to the twentieth division of a Vrihi or rice grain.

The Kalás too number seven in all and are situated at the extreme borders (forming encasement and support) of the different fundamental principles (Dhátus) of the organism. 4.

Memorable Verses

As the duramen or core of a piece of wood or stem becomes exposed to view by cutting into it, so the root principles (Dbátus) of the body may be seen by removing the successive layers or tissues of its flesh. These Kalás are extensively supplied with Snáyus (fibrous tissues), bathed in mucous, and encased in a membranous covering. 5-6