Causes : - The Pitta and Kapha of the body are aggravated by such causes as eating before the digestion of a previous meal, excessive use of any indigestible, uncongenial, incompatible or filthy articles of fare, sedentary habits, partaking of cold, heavy or fatty meals, sleeping in the day-time, excessive use of Masha, cikes, Vidala (cereals), Visa (lotus stems), Saluka (bulbous root of the lotus), Kas'eruka, pot-herbs, Surd (wine) S'ukta (a kind of fermented rice-gruel), curd, milk, treacle, sugar-cane, Palala (dried plants of corn), flesh of Anupa animals, Pinyaka (oil cakes), Prithuka (Chipi-taka), and such other articles of fare as well as by the use of sweet, acid and liquid articles. They help the germination of parasites of various shapes in the different parts of the body, Amas'aya (stomach) and Pakvas'aya (intestines) being their principal seats or location. 2.


The worms or parasites (which arc found to germinate and grow in a living human organism) are divided into twenty different species, and have their origin either in feces, Kapha or blood *. Now I shall enumerate their names and characteristic features. 2 - 3.

Names and Symptoms of Purishaja Worms

The seven kinds of worms which are Malaja (produced from the external filth of the body), over and above that kind of worms which are present in every organism from the very birth (Sahaja)known as Ajava, Vijava, Kipya, Tripya, Gandu-pada, Churu and Dvi-mukha, originate from feces (Purishaja). They are white and extremely attenuated in their size. They frequent the passage of the rectum and produce a pricking pain (therein). Several of them are thicker and have tails. Cramps (Sula) dulness of appetite, yellowness of complexion, distension of the abdomen, loss of strength, water-brash, aversion to food, heart-disease (Hrid-roga) and looseness of stool, are the symptoms which mark the presence of worms (in the intestines), which originate in the feces. Of these Gandu-pada worms are red and long in their shape producing such symptoms as cutting pain (Sula), rumbling sound in the intestines, looseness of stool, and indigestion and they come out of the anus with an itching sensation. 4 - 5.

* Charaka speaks of another kind viz.

Names and Symptoms of Kaphaja Krimi

Those known as Darbha-pushpa, Maha-pushpa,Praluna, Chipita, Pipilika and Daruna,have their origin in the deranged Kapha. They arc cither hairy or have hairs only on their heads, or are marked with brown spots on their sides or are provided with tails. They are white and small-sized like fresh paddy-sprouts. They eat away the marrow and bore into the eye-balls, the palate and the ears and produce head-ache, cardiac troubles (Hrid-roga), vomiting and catarrh. 6 - 7.

Names and Symptoms of Raktaja Krimi

The names of the worms originating from the vitiated blood arc Kesada. Romada, Nakhada, Dantada, Kikkis'a, Kushthaja and Parisarpa *. They are either black or blood-coloured, glossy and thick and generally produce diseases which are peculiar to the vitiated state of the blood * in the body. 8.

* The names of these worms have been derived hum the nature of their action., on the different parts of the organism.