Now we dilate upon the dictum which has been put forward in the first portion of the present work, and which is to the effect that a patient suffering from ulcers should always be protected from the evil influences cast by night-rangers (i. e. ghost, monsters, and malignant spirits, etc.). Whoever produces superhuman character in a man by making him exhibit uncommon fortitude and marked irrelevancy in his dealings and the power to know the private and future events is called a Graha. 2-3.
Innumerable are the Grahas and their tutelary divinities who roam about in the world in quest of offerings or out of their innate tendency for mischief and cruelty and choose their victims from among persons who are impure in body, mind and acts - be they ulcerated or otherwise. These Grahas though possessed of various shapes and figures are mainly classified under eight groups or families. The Devas (deities) and their enemies (viz. the Asuras), Gandharvas, Yakshas, Pitris (manes), Bhujangas, (Serpent-dietics), Rakshasas (monsters) and Pis'achas (filthy goblins) are the eight classes of Grahas. 4 -5.
A person possessed by a Deva (divine) Graha is cleanly, contented, vigorous and with little sleep. He speaks in good and pure Sanskrit, betrays a strong and decided liking for flowers and perfumes, grants boons (after the fashion of a divine being) to all and is devoted to Brahmanas, and stares with a fixed gaze (in his eyes). A person labouring under the malignant influence of an Asura Graha (devil) perspires copiously, speaks ill of the gods, Brahmanas and preceptors, knits his brow with arched eyes, has no fear, becomes satisfied with all kinds of food or drink and exhibits vicious propensities. A person under the influence of a Gandharva Graha moves about happily along lovely river-banks, or in lovely forest. Always cleanly in body and acts, he shows fondness for songs, flowers and sweet scents, laughs merrily and croons sweet songs and dances. Copper-coloured eyes, partiality for wearing thin red garments, vigour and fortitude, repeated offers for granting boons or gifts to persons, taciternity, restiveness (D. R. - fastness in walking) and gravity of the mind are the symptoms which are manifested in a person coming under the influence of a Yaksha Graha. 6-9.
* Amanusha - lit. non-mdnusha, i, e. other than human. It includes the deities, demons, ghosts, monsters and the manes and even the serpent-deities.
A person similarly affected by a Pitri Graha becomes calm and quiet as well as reverent towards the manes. He offers oblations on Kus'a-grass and libations of water for their satisfaction, with the upper garment worn in a fashion so as to fall under his left arm and exhibits a liking for cooked meat as well as sesamum, treacle and Payasa. A person struck by the malignant influence of a Bhujanga Graha, sometimes moves on his breast along the ground like a serpent, always licks the corners of his lips with the tip of his tongue, becomes drowsy (D. R. irritable) and shows a marked predilection for treacle, honey, milk and Payasa. 10 - 11.
A fondness for flesh, blood and various kinds of ardent spirit, blank shamelessness, extreme cruelty, courageousness, irritability, extraordinary strength, stirring out in the night and an entire disregard of cleanliness are the traits which mark a person attacked by a Rakshasa Graha. Haughtiness, emaciation of the frame, roughness of behaviour, garrulousness, fetid smell from the body, extreme uncleanliness and restiveness, voracious eating, fondness for cold water and lonely places, stirring abroad in the night (D. R. fondness for walking about the out-skirts of forest) and roaming about weeping and engaged in vicious pursuits (D. R. anxious looks) are the features which show that a person has been possessed by a Pisa'cha Graha. 12-13.
If a person possessed by a Graha, has swollen eyes, quick pace, foam at the mouth which he licks himself, drowsiness, staggering gait which sometimes compels him to fall down on the ground or if he is possessed by a Graha after his fall from a hill, an elephant, a tree or such other high place, or if he be old * he should be regarded as incurable. 14.