Names Of The Technical Terms

There arc thirty-two technical terms in this Treatise. They are - (1) Adhikarana, (2) Yoga, (3) Padartha, (|) Hetvartha, (5) Uddes'a, (6) Nirdes'a, (7) Upades'a, (8) Apades'a, (9) Pradcs'a. (10 ) Atidesa, (11) Apavarga, (12) Vakya-s'esha, (13) Arthapatti, (14) Viparyaya, (15) Prasanga, (16) Ekanta, (17) Anekanta, (18) Purva-paksha, (19) Nirnaya, (20) Anumata, (21) Vidhana, (22) Arngata-vekshana, ( 23 ) Atikranta-vekshana, (24) Sams'aya, (25) Vyakhyana, (26) Sva-samjna, (27) Nirvachana, (28) Nidarsana, (29) Niyoga, (30) Samuzhchaya, (31) Vikalpa, and (32) Uhya. 2.


What is the necessity of the use of these technical terms (Tantra-Yukti) ? The answer is - For connecting words together, i. e, making up sentences and giving a sense or meaning to them. 3.

Memorable Verses

By the use of technical terms in a scientific treatise the points of argument of the opposite party are frustrated and the points of one's own argument are established. The meanings of the words, whether clearly used or not, whether direct or indirect, or partially used, if there is any such, in the treatise are also made distinct (by the use of the technical terms). Just as the sun shows a cluster of lotus and a lighted lamp (the inside of) a room at their best, so the technical terms used in a treatise clearly show i.e., explain the intended meaning. 4.

Of there terms Adhikarana is the subject about which something is spoken of. For example - on (the subject of ) Rasa or on (the subject of) Dosha. 5.

The term 'Yoga" is the union of words or sentences together. For example - an oil duly cooked with Amrita-valli, Nimba, Himsra, Abhaya, Vrikshaka, Pippali, the two kinds of Bala and with Deva-daru should be prescribed for drinking as being efficacious in all cases of Gala-ganda. Here the main idea is 'Siddham pivet' i. e. should be cooked and taken internally ; but the word 'Siddham' is used in the first half of the second hemistich, far away from the word 'Pivet' in the sentence. This combining together of the different words, however distant in a sentence, is called a Yoga. 6.

The term 'Pada'rtha" is the meaning implied by a word or an aphorism (i. e. a sentence). Padarthas are innumerable. For example - Sneha, Sveda, or Anjana, when used in a sentence, would each imply two or three meanings ; but only one meaning which tallies with the use of the previous or subsequent word (in the text) should be understood in each case. Thus, in the sentence "Vedotpattim Vyakhya syamah" i. e. we shall discourse on the origin of the 'Veda', the use of the word "Veda'" would put the hearer at a loss to understand which of the Vedas is going to be discoursed on, for there are several Vedas, viz, Rigveda, etc. But when we try to understand the expression in connection with the previous or subsequent use of the expression - for the root 'vid' may mean either 'Vicharana' (discussion) or 'Vindati' (to get) - we can afterwards come to the conclusion that the subject to be discoursed upon is the origin of Ayurveda. This is what is meant by the term Padartha. 7.

Hetwartha is the meaning indirectly implied by a word. For example - as earth is moistened by water, so an ulcer is moistened ;and consequently secretes) by (the taking of) Masha-pulse, milk, etc. 8.

Uddesa is the statement in brief. For example- Salya (ordinarily any foreign matter but secondarily implying any obstructing matter in the body). 9.

Nirdesa is the statement in detail. For example- "Salya" is of two kinds "Sarira" (idiopathic) and "Agantu" (traumatic). 10.

Upadesa is an instruction for the doing of a thing in a particular way. For example - one should not sit up at night and one should give up sleep at the daytime. 11.

Apadts'a is the statement of reason. For example- it has been specified that Sleshma is increased by the use of the articles of sweet taste. 12.

Pradesa is the determination of a present action from past events. For example - Devadatta's Salya has been extracted by this person, hence Yajnadatta's Salya will also be extracted by him. 13.

Atides'a is the determination of some future event from some present event. For example - one's bodily Vayu courses upwards by such and such an action, hence one may get (an attack of Vataja) Udavarta by such an action. 14.

Apavarga is the extraction - i. e. exception of (something) from something more comprehensive or extended, that is to say, it is an exception to the general rule. For example - fomentation should not be applied to persons suffering from the effects of poisoning excepting those suffering from insect-poison. 15, Vakya-s'esha is the word the absence of the use of which does not make the sentence incomplete. For example -when we say of the head, the hands, the legs, the sides, the back, the abdomen (Udara) and the chest" it becomes evident that these (parts) of a 'person are intended. 16.

Arthapatti (presumption) is the term used when the sense (of a sentence), though not specifically mentioned, can yet be indirectly presumed or deduced. For example* - when one says to another 'this rice (solid food) can be taken,' it becomes evident that he is not willing to drink a (liquid) Yavagu or gruel. 17.

Viparyaya (reverse) is the term used when, the words used (in a sentence) convey quite a different or opposite sense. For example, -when it is said that 'emaciated, weak and frightened persons are very difficult to be medically treated', the opposite sense becomes evident, viz,3 that strong, and such-like persons are very easy to be medically treated. 18.

Prasanga (connected reasoning) is the term used when a different subject is introduced at the end. It is also the term used when the same sense is repeated in different words in different places (in the same topic). For example - it is said in the chapter on Vedotpatti (Chapter I (Medical Treatment Of The Two Kinds Of Inflamed Ulcers (Dvivraniya Chikitsitam)), Sutra-Sthana) that "Purusha" (living organism) is the sum-total of the "Maha-bhutas" (or the five primary elements - viz, earth, water, fire, air and ether) and the Sariri (or the soul), that medical treatment should be made of him (Purusha) and that he is the subject matter of every action); and it has been repeated in the chapter on Bhuta-vidya (demonology) that the Purusha has therefore been said to be the combination of the five Maha-bhutas and the soul and that he is the subject-matter of all sorts of medical treatment. 19.