The diseases which are found to invade the region of the Choroid including the Iris (Krishna-mandala) have been briefly said to be four in number. Their names are Sa-vrana-Śukra, A-vrana-Śukra, P‚kŠtyaya and Ajak‚. 2.

Symptoms I - A puncture-like dip in the region of the (Krishna-mandala) with a sensation there as if the part has been pricked with a needle and attended with an excruciating pain and a hot exudation is called Sa-vrana-Śukra. If the seat of this disease considerably remote from the pupil - entire part of the Drishti (Retina) be marked by the absence of pain and discharge and be not deep-seated and if there be not double spots, it offers very little chance of remedy. 3-4.

Symptoms And Prognosis Of A-Vrana-ŚUkra

A whitish film appearing on the region of the Choroid including the Iris (Krishna) like a speck of transparent cloud in the sky, and attended with lachrymation and slight pain due to the eye-disease known as Abhishyanda (Ophthalmia - lit. secretion) is called the A-vrana-Śukra. This is easily curable. A case of Avrana-Śukra (non-ulcerated film) which is thickened, deep-seated and long-standing, may be cured only with the greatest difficulty, while an long-standing case of this disease, if it is mobile, covered with shreds of flesh, vein-ridden, stretching down to the second layer of skin (in the eye) and obstructing the vision, severed in the middle and marked with a reddish tint in the extremities, should be deemed as incurable. Several authorities aver that the appearance of Mudga-like specks or films on the region of the Iris, attended with growths of pustules and hot lachrymations, should be like-wise regarded as incurable. The fact of its (speck) assuming the colour of the feather of a Tittira bird is an additional indication of the incurable nature of this disease. 5.

The appearance of a whitish milky film over the black part of the eye slowly shrouding it entirly with its mass and attended with acute pain is known as the Akshi-PŠkŠttyaya. This is invariably found to result from an attack of Akshi-kopa* and is due to the concerted action of all the Doshas. A painful reddish growth, like the head of a goat, found to shoot forth from beneath the surface of the black part and attended with reddish slimy secretion is called an Ajaka. 6-7.

Thus ends the fifth chapter of the Uttara-Tantra in the Sus'ruta Sam-hita which treats of the pathology of the diseases of the black part of the eye.

* According to Madhava's reading in his Nidana, this disease need not necessarily result from an attack of Akshi-kopa, and there need not be an acute pain, and it would be incurable.