Various kinds of worms and insects (Kita) germinate from the semen, fecal matter, urine, putrid eggs and putrid carcases of serpents which are marked by Vátaja, Pittaja (Agneya) and Kaphaja (Ambuja) temperaments. The poisons of these vermin which are nothing but insects (Kita), are apt to be most dangerous in the long run on account of their being acted upon by the Doshas and may be divided into four * groups. 2.

Insects Of Vataja Temperament

The eighteen classes of insects known as the Kumbhi-nasa, Tundikeri, Sringi, Sata-Kuliraka, Uchchitinga, Agnináma, Chichchitinga, Mayuriká, Avartaka, Urabhra, Sarika-mukha, Vaidala, Sáráva-kurda, Abhiráji, Parusha, Chitra-s'irshaka, Sata báhu and the Rakta-raji are possessed of a Vátaja temperament and their poison tends to aggravate and derange the bodily Váyu and produce the specific diseases due thereto. 3.

Insects Of Pittaja Temperament

The twenty-four families of insects known as the Kaun-dilyaka, Kanabhaka, Varati (asp), Patra-vris'chika, Vinasika, Brahmanika, Vindula (D.R.-Viluta), Bhramara, Vahyaki, Pichchita, Kumbhi, Varchah-kita, Arime-daka, Padma-kita, Dundubhika, Makara, Sata-pádaka (centipede), Panchálaka, Páka-matsya, Krishna-tunda, Gardabhi, Klita, Krimi-Sarai and the Utklesaka are of a fiery i. e. Pittaja temperament and their poison tends to derange and aggravate the bodily Pitta and produce the specific diseases due to the derangement of that Dosha. 4.

* Dallana says that the four groups are to be determined according to the origin of the insects from the semen, etc. of a Darvi-kara, Mandali, Rájila, or a Vaikaranja serpent. To us it seems, however, that the groups should be Vátaja, Pittaja, Kaphaja and Sannipátaja.

Insects of Kaphaja Temperament:

- The thirteen families of insects known as the Vis'vam-bhara, Pancha-s'ukla, Pancha-krishna, Kokila, Saireyaka Prachalaka, Valabha, Kitima, Suchi-mukha, Krishna-Godha, KashayaVasika, Kita-gardabhaka and the Trotaka are possessed of Saumya i.e., Kaphaja temperament, and their poison aggravates and deranges the Kapha and produces the specific diseases which owe their origin to the deranged condition of that Dosha. 5.

Insects Of Sannipa'Tika Temperament

The twelve kinds of insects known as the Tungi-nása, Vichilaka, Tálaka, Váhaka, Koshthágári, Krimikara, Mandala-Puchchhaka, Tunga-nábha, Sarsha-pika, Avalguli, Sambuka and the Angi-kita are dangerously fatal in their bite. A person or an animal bitten by any of these dangerous insects exhibits stages and symptoms similar to those of a case of a snake-bite and their poison tends to derange and aggravate the three Doshas (Sannipátika) of the body and produce the specific symptoms thereof. 6-A.

Symptoms Of Their Bite

The seat of the bite seems as if on fire or being burnt with strong alkali and is characterised by a red, yellow, white or vermillion colour. The symptoms which are developed in the entire course of the poisoning (or are found to supervene) in cases of their bites are fever, breaking and aching pain (in the limbs), horripilation, vomiting, thirst, a burning sensation in the body, loss of consciousness, yawning, shaking of the limbs, difficult breathing, hic-cough, (sometimes) a burning and (at others) a cold sensation (in the seat of the bite), eruption of pustules, swelling (in the affected locality), appearance of nodular glands (Granthi), circular erythematous patches (Mandala) on the skin, ring-worm, Erysipelas, Kitima (Keloid Tumour) and Karniká (round about the seat of the bite) as welt as any other symptoms peculiar to the Dosha aggravated by the poison of each species. 6.

The other characteristic features of the poison of these (fatal and strong-poisoned) insects should be speedily ascertained by comparing the symptoms of aggravation of the Dushi-Visha (consequent thereon) and by examining the effets of the application of different anti-poisonous plasters as well. 7.

These are the characteristic features of sharp-poisoned insects; now hear me describe those of the mild-poisoned ones. The symptoms which are manifest in the case of a bite by such an insect are salivation (Praseka), an aversion to food, vomiting, heaviness in the head, a slight sensation of cold and the appearance of pustules and urticaria according to the deranged Dosha aggravated by the species of the biting insect. 8.

The pulverised bodies of these insects possessing, as they do, the characteristic features of Dushi-Visha or enfeebled poison (lying inherent in a human system) is turned into a Gara or chemical (combinative or resultant) poison, if administered (internally) with any medicine or externally with any plaster. 9.

We shall henceforth describe the distinctive traits of one insect from another of the same species according to the classification and general characteristics and incurability of their bites. 9.