Dhuma (fumes) may be divided into five groups * viz., Práyogika (capable of being daily used), Snehana (soothing), Vairechana (expectorant), † Kasaghna (anti-cough) and Vamaniya (emetic). 2.

Materials of different Dhuma-varti:

- The drugs of the Eládi group, excepting Kushtha and Tagara, should be pasted together. A space of eight fingers out of the entire length of a stem of S'ara weed twelve fingers long should be covered with a piece of silk cloth and plastered with the coat of the preceding paste. This stick should be burnt and used in the Práyogika Dhuma pána. The pith (pulp) of oleaginous fruits, wax and resin, Guggulu, etc., with the admixture of a Sneha (oil or clarified butter; should be used in the Snehana-Dhuma. The drugs included into Siro-Virechana group should be used in Vairechana Dhuma. Vrihati, Kanta-káriká, Trikatu, Kása-marda, Hingu, lngudi-bark .‡ Manah-s'ilá, Guduchi, and Karkata-s'ringi and such other drugs which allay cough should be used in the Kásaghna-Dhuma. Nerves, skin, horns, hoops, shells of a crab, dried fish, dry meat or worms, etc., and

such other emetic drugs should be used in the Váma-niya Dhuma. 3.

* Chaiaka, however, divides Dhuma into three classes only - viz., Práyogika, Snaihika and Vairechanaka, and includes the Kása-hara into the Práyogika, and Vámaniya into the Vairechana Dhuma.

† The term Vairechana here means S'iro-Virechana by means of fumes.

‡ Some commentators mean to explainTreatment Which Consists In Employing The Inhalati 200200 as Ingudi and cardamom instead of as Ingudi-bark. This seems to be better.

Formation of the pipe used In Dhuma-Pána

The pipe to be used in respect of an Inhaler should be made of one or other of the same substances * of which the pipes of enema-syringes (Vasti-Netra) arc nude. The girth of such a pipe should be equal to that of the small finger at its mouth with an inner aperture or calibre as large as a Kaláya pulse, and its girth at the root or base should be equal to that of the thumb, while the girth of the inner apcrtureor near (at the root) should be sufficiently large to allow the Dhuma-Varti (made of S'ara weed) to fit in. The length of the pipe should be forty-eight fingers† in respect of a Práyogika, thirty-two fingers in respect of a Snehana, twenty-four fingers in respect of a Vaircchana, sixteen fingers in respect of a Kásaghna (anti-cough) and Vámaniya (emetic) Dhuma. The girth of the aperture (channel) should be equal to that of a stone of the Kola fruit in respect of the tube to be used in the last two cases (Kásaghna and Vámaniya). The tube to be employed in fumigating an ulcer should be eight fingers in length and equal to a Kaláya pulse in outer girth, while the girth of the inner orifice should be sufficient to allow a Kulattha pulse to pass in. 4. The medicinal stick (Varti) should be lubricated with a Sneha (clarified butter, etc). It should then be attached to one end of the pipe (Netra) and lighted. The patient should sit in an easy and comfortable posture, maintain a cheerful frame of mind and carefully inhale the medicinal fumes with his eyes cast down straight towards the ground. 5.

* See Chapter XXXV (Dimensions And Classifications Of A Netra And A Vasti (Pipes, Nozzles And Apparatus) With Their Therapeutic Applications (Netra-Vasti-PramáNa- PravibháGa-Chikitsitam)), Para. 7, Chikitsita Sthána.

Charaka's description of the pipes, (Chapter V (Medical Treatment Of Snake-Bites (Sarpa-Dashta Kaipa-Chikitsitam)), S'lokasthána) corresponds closely to that of Sus'ruta, except in the case of Práyogika pipe, where Charaka's reading is somewhat ambiguous. There it may be construed to mean thirty-six as well as forty-eight fingers. Jatu-karna, however, explicitly asserts forty-eight fingers to be the length of the pipe in question. Vrinda is in a fix, and solves the difficulties by explaining that in cases of an aggravation of Kapha and an abundance of Doshas, the length of the pipe should be thirty-six fingers.

Metrical Texts

The fumes should be first inhaled through the mouth and then through the nostrils; whether inhaled through the mouth or the nostrils they should be invariably exhaled through the mouth. Inhaled through the mouth, they should not by any means be exhaled through the nostrils as such a course (of exhaling through the nostrils) would act wrongly and impair the eye-sight. 6.

The fumes (Dhuma) should be specially inhaled through the nostrils, in connection with a Práyogika inhalation, while they may be inhaled both through the mouth and the nostrils in Sneliarja-Dhuma. They should be inhaled through the nostrils alone in an act of Vairechana inhalation and through the mouth only in the two remaining cases (Vámaniya and Kaphaghna . 7.