Since the human body is constituted of humours, (Doshas), excretions (Mala), and the fundamental principles (Dhatus) of blood, marrow, etc., hear me discourse on the features which are peculiar to each of them.

The Vayu. - The imparting of motion to the body (Praspandanam), the carrying of the sensations of the respective sense organs (Udvahanam, the passing down of food to its proper receptacles (Puranam), the separation of excretions from the assimilated food matter (Viveka), and the retention and evacuation of urine and semen, etc. (Dharanam) should be ascribed to the functions of the five kinds * of Vayu (nerve force) which support the body.

The Pittam. - Pigmentations or colouring (Ragakrit), the digestion of food and metabolism of tissues (Paktikrit), the vitalisation and nutrition of the protaplasmic cells (Ojakrit), the origination and preservation of eye-sight (Teja-Krit), the germination of heat and maintenance of the temperature of the body (Ushma-Krit), and the origination of the faculty of intellection (Medha-Krit) should be regarded as the functions of the five kinds * of Pittam, which contribute to the preservation of the body through its thermogenetic potency (Agni-Karma).

*They are called Prana, Udana, Samana, Vyana and Apana.

The Shleshma. - The function of the five kinds † of Shleshma is to lubricate the interior of the joints (Sandhi-Samshleshanam), to contribute to the gloss of the body (Snehanam), to aid in the formation of healthy granules in sores (Ropanam), to add to the size of the body (Puranam) to build fresh tissues (Vrimhanam), to impart a pleasant or soothing sensation to the body (Tarpanam), to increase its strength (Valakrit), and to give firmness to the limbs (Sthairya-krit), thereby contributing to the welfare of the body by supplying it with its watery element.

The Rasa or the lymph chyle exercises a soothing effect upon the entire organism and tends

* They are named as Ranjaka. Pachaka, Sadhaka (Medhakrit and Ojakrit), Alochaka and Bhrajaka.

† They are known as Shleshmaka, Kledaka, Vodhaka, Tarpaka, Avalamvaka.

N. B. - The Vayu, Pittam, and Shleshma, (Kaphham), though ordinarily translated as wind, bile and phlegm, differ in their meaning from their usual English synonyms. We reserve the treatment of these subjects for a separate place in another part of the book when we shall have occasion to deal with the essentials of Ayurvedic Physiology - Tr. 16 to contribute to the increased formation of blood. The blood, in its turn, increases the healthful glow of the complexion, leads to the increased formation of flesh and muscles and maintains vitality in the organism. The flesh contributes towards the stoutness or rotundity of the limbs and occasions the formation of fatty matter in the system. The fat gives rise to the glossiness (formation of oily or albuminous matter) of the body and primarily contributes towards the firmness and growth of the bones. The bones, in their turn, support the body, and contribute to the formation of marrow. The marrow contributes towards the formation and increase of semen, and fills in the internal cavities of the bones, and forms the chief source of strength, amorous feelings and hilarity. The semen gives rise to valour and courageousness, makes a man amorously disposed towards the female sex, increases his strength and amativeness, is the sole impregnating principle in the male organism, and is possessed of the virtue of being quickly emitted.

The excreta or the fecal matters of a man are indispensably necessary for the preservation of the body. They contain the wind and digestion (being primarily connected with the movements of the bodily Vayu and the feeling of hunger). The urine fills the receptacle of the bladder, and is possessed of the property of washing or draining off the waste or refuse matter of the organism; whereas perspiration tends to moisten the skin.

The Artavam (menstrual blood) is endued with the same properties as its arterial namesake, and is one of the essential factors in a woman which makes impregnation possible. The foetus or impregnated matter (Garbha) serves to make patent the features characteristic of pregnancy. The breast-milk in its turn tends to bring about an expansion of the mammae (of a woman), and maintains the life of her child (by supplying it with the necessary and nutritive element of food). These Vayu, etc. should be duly preserved in their normal condition.

Now we shall describe the symptoms which attend the loss or waste of any of the foregoing principles of the body. *

The loss of the bodily Vayu (nerve-force) is followed by a state of languor, shortness of speech, uneasiness or absence of hilarity, and loss of consciousness. The loss of (Pittam) is marked by a dulness of complexion, diminution of the bodily heat and an impaired state of internal fire (digestive heat). The loss of phlegm (Kapham) is marked by dryness, a sensation of internal burning, a feeling of emptiness in the stomach and other cavities or chambers of the body, looseness of the joints (a feeling as if the joints were all broken), thirst, weakness, and insomnia. In such cases the medical treatment should consist of remedial agents which are capable of directly contributing to the growth or formation of the humour so lost or deteriorated.

* Such a loss or perceptible deterioration of any of them should be ascribed to the use of excessive cleansing or cathartic (Samshodhanam) and pacifying (Samshamanam) measures, or to a repression of the natural urgings of the body, or to a course of violent or overfatiguing physical exercise, or to amorous excesses, or to the use of unwholesome and unsuitable food, or to grief, etc.

Similarly the lose of lymph chyle is marked by pain about the region of the heart, Angina Pectoris, with palpitation of the heart, a sensation of emptiness or gone-feeling in the viscus, and thirst. The loss of blood is attended with such symptoms as roughness of the skin, and a craving for acid food or drink. The patient longs to be in a cool place and asks for cool things, and the veins become loose and flabby. The loss of flesh is marked by emaciation of the buttocks, cheeks, lips, thighs, breasts, armpits, * neck, and the calves of the legs. The arteries seem loose and flabby, and the body seems to be dry and inert, accompanied by an aching or gnawing pain in its members. The loss of fat is followed by such symptoms as the enlargement of the spleen, a sense of emptiness in the joints, and a peculiar dryness of the skin and a craving for cold and emollient meat. The degeneration of the bones is marked by an aching pain in the bones and bone-joints, a wasting of teeth and gums, and a general dryness of the body. Similarly, the loss or waste of marrow is characterised by the formation of a lesser quantity of semen, aching pain in the bones and breaking pain in the bone-joints which have become marrowless. The loss or waste of semen is marked by pain in the penis and the testes, and by incapacity for sexual intercourse. In such cases the emission of semen but rarely happens, and is then perceptibly deficient in its quantity, the emitted matter consisting of a small quantity of selnen marked with shreds of blood. The medical treatment under the preceding circumstances should consist of remedies of such medicinal virtues as are found to directly and immediately contribute to the formation of the bodily principle (thus wasted or lost).