Sixty five * different forms of mouth disease are known in practice. They are found to attack seven different localities viz. the lips, the gums of the teeth, tongue, palate, throat and the entire cavity; of these eight are peculiar to the lips; fifteen, to the roots of the teeth; eight to the teeth; five to the tongue; nine to the palate; seventeen to the throat; and three to the entire cavity. 2 - 3.
The lips become dry, rough,numbed, black, extremely painful and the affected part seems as if it were smashed and pulled out or cracked by the action of the aggravated Váyu. In the Pittaja type - the lips become blue or yellow-coloured and studded with (a large number of small) mustard-seed-like eruptions, which suppurate and exude a purulent discharge attended with a burning sensation (in the locality). In the Kaphaja type - the affected lips are covered with small eruptions, which are of the same colour as the surrounding part, and become slimy, heavy or thick, cold and swollen. Pain is absent in this type and the patient feels an irresistible inclination to scratch the parts. In the Sánnipátaja type, the lips change colour, becoming black, yellow, or ash-coloured (white) at intervals and are found to be studded with various sorts of eruptions. 5 - 8.
* According to others sixty-seven - but Dalian does not support this.
(Produced by the vitiated condition of the blood) the affected lips look as red as blood and profusely bleed and crops of date coloured (chocolate coloured) eruptions appear on their surface. In the Mánsaja type (due to the vitiated condition of the local flesh), the lips become heavy, thick and gathered up in the form of a lump of flesh. The angles of the mouth become infested with parasites which germinate and spread themselves in the affected parts. In the Medaja(fat-origined) type the lips become numbed, soft, heavy and marked by an itching sensation, The skin of the inflamed surface becomes glossy and looks like the surface layer of clarified butter exuding a thin crystal-like (transparent) watery discharge. In the Abhighátaja (Traumatic) type, the lips become red, knotty and marked by an itching sensation and seem as if .pierced into or cut open with an axe and (become cracked and fissured). 9 - 12.
Diseases which are peculiar to the roots of the teeth, are known as Sitáda, Danta-pupputaka, Danta-veshtaka, Saushira, Máha-Saushira, Paridara, Upakus'a, Danta-vaidarbha, Vardhana, Adhimánsa and the five sorts of Nádi (sinus). 13.
Sitáda (Scurvy); - The gums of the teeth suddenly bleed and become putrified, black,slimy and emit a fetid smell. They become soft and gradually slough off. The disease has its origin in the deranged condition of the local blood and Kapham. Danta pupputaka (gum boil): - The disease in which the roots of two or three teeth at a time is marked by a violent swelling and pain is called Danta-pupputaka. The disease is due to the vitiated condition of the blood and Kapham. Danta-veshtaka: - The teeth become loose in the gums, which exude a discharge of blood and pus. This disease is due to the vitiated blood of the locality. Saushira: - The disease in which an itching painful swelling appears about the gums attended with copious flow of saliva is called Saushira (Alveolar abscess). It is caused by the deranged blood and Kapham of the locality. Mahá-Saushira: - The disease in which the teeth become loose, the palate marked by sinuses or fissures, the gums putri-fied, and the whole cavity of the mouth inflamed, is called Mahás'aushira, the outcome of the concerted action of the deranged Doshas of the body. 14 - 18.
Paridara: - The disease in which the gums become putrified, wear off and bleed is called Paridara (bleeding gums The disease has its origin in the deranged condition of the blood, Kapham and Pittam. Upakus'a: - The disease in which the gums become marked by a burning sensation and suppuration and the teeth become loose and shaky (in their gums) in consequence and bleed at the least shaking, is called Upakus'a. There is a slight pain, and the entire cavity of the mouth becomes swollen and emits a fetid smell; this disease is due to the vitiated condition of the blood and Pittam 19.