The six kinds of swelling (Sopha) appearing in the particular parts of the body have already been described * with the variations in their symptoms and the medical treatment to be pursued in each case. But the swelling known as the Sarva-sara Sopha (general Anasarca) may be divided into five subheads. They are as follows, namely, the Vátaja, Pittaja, Kapahja San-nipátaja and Vishaja (i.e . the one due to the introduction of any extraneous poison into the system). 2.

Their Causes

The Doshas (morbific principles) become aggravated and give rise to swellings (Sopha) of the body, by such causes, as by undertaking a journey immediately after a meal, or by the use of Harita-sákas (potherbs , cakes and salts in inordinate quantities, or by the excessive use of acids by weak and emaciated persons, or by the use of clay, baked or unbaked, of lime-stones, or of the flesh of aquatic animals, or of those frequenting swampy places, excessive sexual intercourse, use of fares consisting of incompatible articles and lastly by the joltings when riding on elephants, horses, camels, in vehicles, etc., or on persons on the part of dyspeptic patients. 3.

Specific Symptoms

A swelling (Sopha) of the Vátajá type is vermilion or black-coloured and is attended with softness and a pricking pain in the swelling which disappears at intervals. A swelling of the Pittaja type assumes a blood-red or yellow colour, swiftly expands and is attended with a burning and drawing pain (Chosha). A swelling of the Kaphaja type assumes a white or greyish colour, becomes hard, cold to the touch and glossy, is slow in its growth, and is attended with itching, pain, etc. A swelling of the Sánnipátika type (due to the concerted action of all the three Doshas of the body) exhibits all the symptoms which specifically belong to each of the three above-said types. 4-7.

* See Sutra-sthána, Chapter XVII (Medical Treatment Of Erysipelas, Etc., (Visarpa), Sinus, Etc., (Nadi Vrana) And Diseases Of The Mammary Glands Stana-Roga)).

Symptoms Of Vishaja Aopha

A swelling (Sopha) which results from the contact or introduction of a (weakened) chemical poison (Gara) with or into the body, or from the use of polluted water, or by bathing in a foul and stagnant pool or tank, or by dusting the body with the powders of substances poisoned by any poisonous animal, or from the contact with weeds and plants, which have become poisoned by the urine, faecal matter, or semen of poisonous animals, is called a Vishaja swelling. The swelling is soft, pendent and persistent, expands rapidly and moves gradually (from one part of the body to the other) and is attended with a burning sensation and suppuration. 8.

Memorable Verse

The aggravated Doshas of the body confined in the stomach (Amásaya) give rise to a swelling in the upper part of the body. Confined in the intestines (Pakvásáya), they give rise to a swelling in the middle part of the body. If they are confined in the receptacle of the foeces (Malásáya), the lower part of the body becomes swollen. The swelling extends all over the body in the event of their (Doshas) being diffused throughout the organism. 9.

Prognosis: - An oedematous swelling (Sopha) occurring in the middle part (trunk) of the body or extending all over it may be cured with difficulty as well as the one which first occurs at either (the upper or lower) half of the body and tends to extend upward. A case of swelling attended with dyspnoea, thirst, weakness, fever, vomiting, hiccough, dysentery, colic (S'ula, and a want of relish for food is extremely hard to cure and soon proves fatal. 10-11.

We shall now proceed to describe their general and specific remedies. The use of acids, salts, milk, curd, treacle, lard, water, oil, clarified butter, cakes and all kinds of heavy (in digestion] edibles should be refrained from in all the types of oedema (S'opha). 12-13.