Diseases may be grouped under two broad subdivisions, such as Surgical, and Medical, that is those that yield to the administration of purgatives, emetics, oils, diaphoretics, and unguents.

The use or administration of medicated oils and unguents, etc., is not prohibited in a surgical disease, while a case, which is exclusively medicinal in its character, does not admit of the adoption of any surgical remedy. Only a general outline of the nature and symptoms of all diseases will be found to have been briefly laid clown in the present work. This work includes within its scope subject matters which have been fully dealt with in other books (having only a general bearing upon all the several branches of the science of medicine).

It has been stated before that anything that afflicts either the body or the living personality - self, or both, is called disease. This pain or affliction may be either physical * in its character (Adhyat-mikam), or due to any disturbance in the physical environments of a man (Adhibhautikam), or to the acts of God (Adhidaivikam) etc. This three-fold pain may be ultimately transformed into any of the seven kinds of diseases such as, the Adi-vala-pravritta, Janma-vala-pravritta, Dosha-vala-pravritta, Sanghata-vala-pravritta, Kala-vala-pravritta, Daiva-vala-pravritta and Svabhava-vala-pravritta.


The disease termed Adi-vala-pravritta is ascribed to any inherent defect in the semen or the ovum of one's parent, which forms one of the original and primary factors of "being" and includes leprosy (Kushtham), hemorrhoids, phthisis etc. This type may be divided into two sub divisions, according as the disease is generated by the deranged paternal or maternal factor at the time of incubation.


The Congenital or the Janma-vala-pravritta type usually follows such causes as an improper conduct on the part of the mother during the period of gestation, etc., and embraces such defects or maladies as (congenital) blindness, deafness, dumbness, nasal-voice, and such monstrous aberrations of nature as congenital cretinism, and the births of dwarfs and pigmies. This type, in its turn, admits of two sub-divisions, according as the disease is due to the action of the deranged lymph-chyle (Rasa-krita), or to an ungratified desire of the mother during gestation, or to her gratification of any improper longing or conduct during pregnancy (Dauhridyam).

* Certain commentators interpret the term "Atman" in "Adhyatmikam to mean body only, and accordingly designate all phenomena that may be manifest in the body as Adhyatmikam.


The Dosha-vala-pravritta (idiopathic) type is due to the action of any of the fundamental bodily humours deranged by an improper diet, or resulting from the dynamical energies of the mind, such as (Rajas and Tamas, etc). This type may be classified under two sub-heads, according as the disease is found to have its origin in the Amashaya (stomach), or in the Pakvashaya (intestines), and each of these again may be further divided into two main sub-divisions such as the physical and the mental. The three preceding kinds of diseases include within their category disorders which are called mental or psychical (Adhyatmikam).