A Sneha or an oleaginous substance forms the essential factor of the physical organism,, and the self-conscious animated element (which contributes directly to its vitality and makes life possible) abounds in oleaginous principles; both are consequently in constant want of a Sneha. Snehas or oleaginous substances are enjoined to be administered in food and drinks as well as in Anuvásana, Mastikya-s'iro-vasti and Uttara-vasti (urethral or vaginal enemas), errhines (Nasya), ear-drops (Karna-purana) and unguents (Abhyanga). 2.
There are four kinds of Snehas which, however, are divided into two classes according to their origin: viz., vegetable and animal. Clarified butter prepared from cow's milk is the best of the animal Snehas, while Sesamuin oil is the best of the vegetable ones. 3
Now we shall describe the ends for which the different vegetable oils should be used as well as the modes in which they should be prepared and employed. 4.
The expressed oils prepared from (the seeds of) Lodhra, Eranda, Kos'ámra, Danti, Dravanti, Saptalá, S'amkhini, Palás'a, Vishániká, Gavákshi, Kampillaka, Sampáka and of Nilini act as purgatives. The oils prepared from (the seeds of) Jimutaka, Kutaja, Kritave-dhana, Ikshvákn (bitter gourd), Dhámárgava and of Madana act as emetics. The expressed oils prepared from (the seeds of) Vidanga, Khara manjari, Madhus'igru, Surya-valli, Pilu, Siddhárthaka and of Jyotishmati act as errhines (S'iro-virechana). 5.
* The Sneha is of four kinds, viz., clarified butter, oil, lard and marrow, of which clarified butter and oil are generally used.
The expressed oils prepared from (the seeds of) Karanja, Putika, Kritamála, Mátulunga, Ingudi and of Kiráta-tikta are used in cases of Dusllta-vrana (malignant ulcers). The expressed oils of Tuvaraka, Kapittha, Kampillaka, Bhallátaka and of Patola are used in cases of Mahái-vyádhi (Kushtha, etc.). The expressed oils of Trapusha, Erváruka, Karkáruka, Tumbi and of Kush-mánda are used in cases of Mutra-sanga (for diuretic purposes). The expressed oils of Kapota-vatmka, Aval-guja and of Haritaki are used in cases of Sarkará-s'aiari (gravels, stones, etc.). The expressed oils of Kusumbha, Sarshapa, Atasi, Pichu-marda, Atimuktaka Bhándi, Katu-tumbi and of Katabhi are used in cases of Praineha (urinary complaints). The expressed oils of the fruits of Tala, Nárikela, Panasa, Mocha, Piyála, Vilva, Madhuka, S'leshmátaka and of Amrátaka are used in diseases due to the deranged Váyu acting in concert with the deranged Pitta. The expressed oils of Vibbitaka. Bhallátaka and of Pinditaka are used in Krishna-karma (blackening the cicatrix of a healed ulcer, etc.). The expressed oils of S' ravana, Kanguka and of Tuntuka are used in imparting a yellow colour (to a cicatrix). The expressed oils of the pith of S'ims apá and of the Aguru are used in cases of Kushtha known as Dadm (ring-worm) and Kitima. 6-7.
The primary action of all kinds of Sneha (oil, clarified butter, etc) is to subdue the aggravation of the deranged Váyu of the body, and the general virtues of all kinds of (vegetable) oil have been described above. 8. Now we shall describe the process of preparing drug-decoctions and of medicating oils (therewith). According to several authorities, the bark, roots and leaves, etc., of the drugs to be used should be boiled with water weighing four times their combined weight, and should be taken down with three-four be of the original water evaporated by boiling. This is the rule of preparing drug-decactions (Kasháya) Six Prasrita (one Prasrita being equal to sixteen Tolas) weight of oil, twenty-four Prasrita weights of the liquid (decoction prepared before) and four Aksha measures (one Aksha being equal two to Tolás) of pasted drugs (as Kalka) are the proportions to be observed in cooking a medicated oil. But this is not correct. Why? Because it is not in conformity with the injunctions of the Scriptures (officinal standard). We shall now proceed to explain the different measures of Pala, Kudava, etc. 9-10.