Their Classes'. - Fifteen different kinds of disorders may result from an injudicious use of emetics and purgatives owing to the ignorance of the physician or of the patient. Of these fifteen), the upward coursing in casesof purgatives and the downward coursing in cases of emetics are peculiar to each of them respectively. The fourteen other remaining disorders (Vyápat) are common to both. They are Sávassskaushadhatva (continuance of the drug in the stomach), Jirnausha-dhatva (complete digestion of the medicine), Hina-doshápahritatva (insufficient elimination of the Doshas from the system) Adhika-doshápahritatva (excessive elimination of the Doshas from the system) Váta-sula (Vátaja colic), Ayoga insufficient dosage', Ati-yoga (over dosage) Jiváidána (haemorrhage), Adhmána (tympanites), Pari-kartiká (cutting pain in the anus, etc.), Parisráva (oozing out of stools), Praváthiká (diarrhoea), Hridayopasaraua (rising of the Doshas towards the heart) and Vibandha (suppression of stool and urine). 2.
An emetic taken by a hungry or a weak person or by one possessed of a very keen digestive capacity (Tikshnágni) or of lax bowels (Mridu koshtha) naturally drops down into the intestines in virtue of the identical nature and intensity of their attributes, in the event of its being retained in the stomach, even for a short while. A failure of the medicine to produce the wished-for result and a further stirred or agitated condition of the aggravated Doshas are the effects thereof. In such a case Sneha (and Sveda) should be again applied and a stronger emetic administered. 3.
An obnoxious and large-dosed purgative taken by a person with a residue of a previous meal remaining undigested (in the stomach) or with an aggravated Kapha or with a disordered stomach (Amásaya), is forced upward and is ejected through the mouth. In a person of disordered stomach the accumulations (Kapha) in the stomach should be first speedily ejected with an emetic and a stronger purgative should then be administered. A case where the food remains still undigested (in the intestines) should be treated (with fastings and digestants) as in a case of mucous diarrhoea. A pleasant or tasteful purgative should be given in a moderate dose in the event of a previous one having been ejected on account of its obnoxious taste and abnormal dosage. A third dose should not be given in the event of the second also being not retained in the stomach. At this stage, purging should be effected with the help of a lambative (Leha) prepared with honey, clarified butter and treacle. 4.
A small dose of medicine, whether an emetic or a purgative, if it is absorbed by the deranged Doshas of the body and retained in the system, cannot produce the wished-for result of cleansing the system. In such a case, it gives rise to thirst, pain in the sides, vomiting, epileptic fits, nausea, piercing or breaking pain in the joints, aversion to food, impure eructations, and suchlike symptoms. The patient in such a case should be made to vomit the contents of his stomach with draughts of hot water. When a least residue of a purgative medicine previously administered would be found to have been retained in the stomach of a strong patient and with extremely aggravated Doshas of the body, the patient, if there be an insufficient purging, should be similarly made to vomit. 5