The drugs known as Madana fruits, Kutaja, Jimutaka, Ikshvaku, Dhamagarba, Krita-vedhana, Sarshapa, Vidanga, Pippali, Karan-jaka, Prapunnada, Kovidara, Korvudara, Arishta, Ashva-gandha, Vidula, Vandhujivaka, Shveta, Shanapushpi, Vimvi, Vacha, Mrigervaru and Chitra, etc. are possessed of emetic properties. Out of these the fruits (seeds) of plants preceding Kovidara in the abovesaid list (from the Madana fruits to those of the Prapunnada) and the roots of plants from Kovidara to its close, should be used.
The trees, plants, herbs and creepers, etc. known as Trivrita, Shyama, Danti, Dravanti, Saptala, Shankhini, Vishanika, Gavakshi, Chhagalantri, Snuk, Suvarnakshiri, Chitraka, Kinihi, Kusha, Kasha, Tilvaka, Kampillaka, Ramyaka, Patala, Puga, Haritaki, Amalaka, Bibhitaka, Nilini, Chatur-angula, Eranda, Putika, Mahavriksha, Saptachchhada, Arka, and Jyotishmati, etc. are possessed of purgative properties. Of these the roots of plants, which precede Tilvaka in the above list, should be used for purgative purposes. The barks of trees from Tilvaka to Patala in the same list should be used for similar purposes. The pollens or dust of the Kampilla seeds, and of the fruits of trees from Eranda to Puga, the leaves of Putika and Aragvadha, and the milky exudations of the remaining members of the list, should be similarly used.
The expressed juice of Koshataki, Saptala, Shankhini, Devadali, or Karavellika is both emetic and purgative.
The following drugs, viz. Pippali, Vidanga, Apamarga, Shigru, Siddharthaka, Shirisha, Maricha, Karavira, Vimvi, Girikarnika, Kinihi, Vacha, Jyotishmati, Karanja, Arka, Alarka, Lashuna, Ativisha, Shringavera, Talisha, Tamala, Surasa, Arjaka, Ingudi, Meshashringi, Matulungi, Murangi, Pilu, Jati, Shala, Tala, Madhuka (Maula), Laksha and Hingu, together with such substances as rock-salt, spirits, cow's urine and watery exudation of cow dung should be regarded as errhines (Shirovirechanam. The fruits (seeds) of plants from Pippali to Maricha enumerated in the above-said list, the roots of plants commencing with Karavira and ending with Arka, the bulbs of those whose names precede Talisha in the same list, the leaves of those commencing with Talisha and ending with the Arjaka therein, the barks of Ingudi and Meshashringi, the flowers of Matulungi, Murungi, Pilu and Jati, the essence (Sara) of Shala, Tala and Maduhka (Maul) trees, the gummy exudation (Niryasa) of Hingu plants and Laksha trees, as well as salts which are but the saline modifications of earth, Madya (wines) which are but the modified products of Asava (fermented liquors), and secretions of cowdung, or cow's urine which should be understood to mean the animal excrements, in their crude or natural state, should be used where errhines are indicated.
Now we shall enumerate the names of drugs and substances which soothe or pacify the deranged humours or principles of the body involved in any particular disease (Sanshamanam).