Principle of Action and Co-hesion. Tamas: - Principle of Nescience or Illusion.
The deranged bodily humours (Dosha) in contact with the different elements, (Dhathu) and excrements (Mala) of the body, together with the difference of their locations and pathological effects, give rise to the different forms of disease. *
The nomenclature of a disease depends upon where the affection of the several elementary principles of the body by the deranged bodily humours lies, and which is accordingly styled as it is seated in the lymph-chyle, or in the blood or the flesh, or it is in fat, bone, or in the semen.
Distempers such as aversion to, and loss of relish for food, indigestion, aching in the limbs, fever, nausea and a sense of repletion even without food, heaviness of the limbs, diseases affecting the heart, jaundice, constriction of any internal passage of the body (Margo-parodha), emaciation of the body (cachexia), bad taste in the mouth, weak feelings in the limbs, premature whiteness and falling off of the hair, and symptoms indicative of senile decay, should be regarded as having their seat in the deranged lymph-chyle (Rasa).
* This answers the question, "how can the deranged bodily humours bring about a disease of the Adhi-vala-type - a disease which is specifically due to the derangement of the innate and primary factors of life.'
Maladies such as Kush-tha (cutaneous affections in general, Visarpa (erysipe-las), Pidaka (pustular eruptions), Mashaka, Nilika, Tilakalaka (specks), Nachhya (tans), Vyanga (stains), Indralupta (alopecia), enlarged-spleen, Vidradhi (abscess, Gulma (abdominal glands), Vata-shonita (a kind of leprosy), Arsha (piles), Arvuda (tumours), aching of the limbs, menorrhagia, haemoptysis, etc. as well as suppuration in the regions of the anus and the penis should be deemed as having their origin in the blood Raktaja contaminated by the deranged bodily humours.
Similarly Adhi-mansa, Arvuda, Arsha, Adhi-jihva, Upa-jihva, Upakusha, Gala-sunthika, Alaji, Mansha-sanghata (condylomatous growth), Astha-prakopa, Gala-ganda, Ganda-mala (scrofula), etc. should be regarded as diseases having their seat in the flesh, vitiated by the deranged bodily humours.
Diseases, such as Granthi, Vriddhi, Gala-ganda, Arvuda, and Ostha-prakopa are due to the action of the deranged fat. Madhu-meha (diabetes), obesity and abnormal diaphoresis, etc. should be regarded as having their origin in the humour-deranged fat of the body.
Adhyasthi, Adhi-danta, Asthi-toda, Asthi-shula and Ku-nakha, etc. are the diseases which should be regarded as the outcome of the deranged bodily humours affecting the bones.
The vanishing of sight, epilepsy, vertigo, conjunctivitis and the appearance of a broad-based ulcer about the Parva-sthanam and a sense of heaviness in the thighs and knee-joints should be regarded as having their seat in the deranged marrow.