From their proposing remedies against poisons, they are called Kalpas, and are eight in number.

Chapter I (Medical Treatment Of The Two Kinds Of Inflamed Ulcers (Dvivraniya Chikitsitam)) Preservation of food. 2 Vegetable and inorganic poisons. 3 Poisons from organic creation. 4 Snake poison. 5 Treatment of snake-bites. 6 Rat-bite and its treatment. 7 Emitting the sound of kettle-drums (for the elimination of poison). 8 Antidotes for and treatment of venomous insect-stings.

Thus a synopsis of one hundred and twenty chapters has been given. Now here follows the supplementary division called after its own name (Uttara-Tantram).

The Chapter on Sympathetic diseases is placed first, as this division has for its main object the description of such diseases and their treatment. 2 Diseases of the joinings (margin of the eyelids) of the eyeball. 3 Diseases of the eyelids. 4 The Sclerotic of the eye. 5 The Cornea. 6. The eyeball, as a whole. 7 Diseases of the pupil. 8 Treatment of eye diseases. 9 Prophylactic and curative treatment of wind affections of the eye and ophthalmia. 10 Treatment of Bile affections of the eye and ophthalmia. 11 Treatment of Phlegm affections of the eye and ophthalmia. 12 Treatment of Blood affections of the eye. 13 Treatment of affections in which scarification is needed. 14 Treatment in which paracentesis is needed. 15 Treatment by incisions. 16 Entropium and ectropium. 17 Treatment of the diseases of the pupil and vision. 18 General rules regarding ophthalmic medicine and surgery. 19 Treat-ment of traumatic affections of the eyeballs. 20 General signs and symptoms of ear diseases. 21 Treatment of ear diseases. 22 Signs and symptoms of nose affections. 23 Treatment of nose affections. 24 Treatment of nasal catarrh. 25 Signs and symptoms of cranial diseases. 26 Treatment of cranial affections. These (twenty-six chapters) form the end of the eight divisions of the Ayurveda, called Shalakyam.

Chapter 27 Signs of diseases caused by the Nava-grahas. 28 Prophylactic treatment of diseases caused by Skandha. 29 Treatment of convulsions caused by Skandha. 30 Treatment of Sakuni affections. 31 Treatment of Revati affections. 32 Treatment of Putana. 33 Treatment of Andha Putana. 34 Treatment of Sheeta-Putana. 35 Treatment of Mukhamandika. 36 Treatment of Naigamesha. 37 Origin of the nine Grahas. 38 Diseases of the Vagina (and internal female genital organs). These twelve chapters together with what is included in (the last chapter of the division on anatomy, form the fifth division of the Ayurveda) called Kaumara Tantram.

Chapter 39 Fevers and their treatment. 40 Enteric Catarrh and its treatment. 41 Consumption and its treatment. 42 Diseases of the abdominal glands and their treatment. 43 Diseases of the heart (Angina Pectoris etc. 44 Anaemia and allied diseases and their treatment. 45 Haemorrhagic affections and their treatment. 46 Apoplectic diseases and their treatment.

47 Diseases from excessive drinking and their treatment.

48 Symptoms, causes, and treatment of excessive thirst. 49 Causes, symptoms and treatment of vomiting. 50 Causes, symptoms and treatment of Hiccough. 51 Causes, symptoms, and treatment of Dyspnoea. 52 Causes, symptoms and treatment of cough. 53 Aphonia. 54 Entozoa. 55 Causes, symptoms and treatment of retention of excrements. 56 Causes, symptoms and treatment of Dyspeptic and Choleric diarrhoea.57 Anorexia and its treatment. 58 Causes, symptoms and treatment of cystic and urethral affections. 59 Causes and treatment of urine diseases. These twenty one chapters describe the remaining diseases of Kayachikitsa; (which forms the third division of the Ayurveda).

Chapter 60 Causes, symptoms and treatment of diseases caused by superhuman powers. 61 Causes symptoms and treatment of Epilepsy. 62 Mania. These three chapters form the Bhuta Vidya (the fourth division of the Ayurveda).

Chapter 63 on the different varieties of flavour. 64 General rules for the preservation of health. 65 Deductions and inductions drawn from the texts and study of the Ayurveda. 66 On the varieties of morbid elements (humours). These four chapters are to be understood as being supplementary, and as ornaments to this division.

This last division from its superiority over the others, the great sages have called the Excellent (Uttaram). From the information it gives on varied subjects, it is called the best, the permanent and ihe last.

In this division which is called the last, there are included four divisions (of the Ayurveda) viz, Shalakyam, (treatment of diseases of parts situated above the clavicles), 2 Kaumarabhrityam (management of children), 3 Kayachikitsa general diseases) and 4 Bhuta-Vidya.

The division (named) Vajeekaranam (on the strengthening of virile power, etc.) and Rasayanam remedies preserving vigor, etc.) have been included in the (fourth) division (of this treatise called Chikitsa.

The doctrine of antidotes comes under the head of Kalpa of this treatise and Shalyam surgery is incident-ally treated throughout the book. Thus these are the eight limbs divisions of the Science of Medicine proclaimed to the world by the original god. Those, who study them with due care and make use of the knowledge with caution, shall preserve the lives of men on this earth. It is imperatively necessary that the book should be read; and after having read it one should attend to the practice (of the science . The physician who has learnt these both, is fit to be honoured by kings,

Authoritative Verses On The Subject

A physician, well versed in the principles of the science of medicine (Ayurveda), but unskilful in his art through want of practice, loses his wit at the bedside of his patient, just as a coward is at his wit's end to determine what to do when for the first time he finds himself in the ranks of a contending army. On the other hand a physician, experienced in his art but deficient in the knowledge of the Ayurveda, is condemned by all good men as a quack, and deserves capital punishment at the hands of the king. Both these classes of physicians are not to be trusted, because thy are inexpert and half educated. Such men are incapable of discharging the duties of their vocation, just as a one-winged bird is incapable of taking flight in the air. Even a panacea or a medicine of ambrosial virtues administered by an unpractised or ignorant physician, will prove positively baneful as a draught of poison, or a blow with a weapon, or a thunderbolt. A physician, ignorant of the science and art of surgery and emollient measures Sneha-karma , etc. is but a killer of men out of cupidity, and who is allowed to carry on his nefarious trade only through the inadvertence of the king. A physician well versed in the principles of surgery, and experienced in the practice of medicine, is alone capable of curing distempers, just as only a two-wheeled cart can be of service in a field of battle.

Now hear me, O child, describe the mode of studying the present science of the Ayurveda.) The pupil having worshipped and recited his daily prayers should calmly sit near his preceptor, pure in body and mind, who should teach him a full Shloka or couplet of the Ayurveda), or a half or a quarter part thereof, adapted to his intellectual capacity. Then he should make a full and elaborate paraphrase of the recited couplet or any part thereof, and ask his pupils individually to do the same. When the pupils have paraphrased the same to the satisfaction of the preceptor, he should again recite the same stanza or couplet. The passages or shlokas should not be recited too hastily, nor drawled out in a timid or faltering voice, nor with a nasal intonation. The voice should be neither too loud, nor too weak, but each sound should be clearly and distinctly uttered, and the lips, the eyes, the eyebrows, and the hands, etc. should not be lifted or moved to keep time with the recitation. No one should be allowed to pass between the pupil and the preceptor at the time of study.

Authoritative Verses On The Subject

A pupil who is pure, obedient to his preceptor, applies himself steadily to his work, and abandons laziness and excessive sleep, will arrive at the end of the science (he has been studying).

A student or a pupil, having finished the course of his studies, would do well to attend to the cultivation of fine speech and constant practice in the art he has learnt, and make unremitting efforts towards the attainment of perfection (in the art).

Thus ends the third Chapter of the Sutrasthanam in the Sushruta Samhita which deals with the Classification of the Ayurveda,