* The armpits look thin, narrow and contracted.

The loss absence, suppression or scanty formation of fecal matter is attended with a sensation of pain at the sides and the region of the heart, and the upward coursing of (the incarcerated) wind or flatus, accompanied with a rumbling sound about the region of the liver and the intestines. Similarly, the loss, (absence or scanty formation) of urine is marked by an aching pain in the bladder, causing it dribble or to come out in thin and scanty jets. Here, as in the foregoing instances, the remedial agents should consist of drugs which directly contribute to the formation of urine. Similarly the waste, absence or scanty formation of perspiration is followed by such symptoms as numbness about the pores of the hair, and dryness of the epidermis (skin). The sense of touch is perceptibly affected, and perspiration is entirely stopped. The medical treatment in such a case consists in the application of medicated unguents, lubrications, diaphoretics, and adoption of measures (that tend to produce a copious perspiration).

In the case of loss or waste of the catamenial flow, the menses do not appear at the appointed time or are scanty. The vagina seems stuffed and painful. The medical treatment in such cases consists in the adoption of alterative or cleansing measures, and in the administration of drugs of a heat-making (Agneya) potency or virtue.

The loss or waste of breast-milk is characterised by a shrunken condition of the mammas, and suppression or scanty secretion of the fluid. The medical treatment in such cases lies in the administration of drugs which generate Kapham.

The atrophy or wasting of the foetus in the womb (during the period of gestation) is marked by the absence of any movement in the uterus and the non-distended condition of the sides or walls of the abdomen. The treatment consists in the application of Kshira Vastis (enemas of medicated milk into the region of the uterus) in the eighth month of gestation, and prescribing courses of emollient fare for the patient (mother) *

* Several editions read invigorating diets, egg, etc.

Now we shall describe the symptoms which mark the excess (excessive accumulation in the body) of any of the fundamental humours, principles and excrements of the body.

The quantities of these humours, principles and secretion, are abnormally increased through the use of substances that primarily contribute to their formation in the organism. *

An excess of Vayu in the body is marked by such symptoms as roughness of the skin, † emaciation of the body, darkness of complexion (lit: blackness of hue), a little tremor or trembling of the limbs, longing for heat, or for hot things, insomnia, thickness or increased consistency of the fecal matter and decrease of bodily strength. (Similarly, an abnormal) increase of Pittam is characterised by a sallow complexion or a yellowish colour of the skin, a general burning sensation in the body as well as insomnia, a craving for cold contacts and cooling things, diminution of strength, weakness of the sense organs, fits of fainting and yellowness of the conjunctivae, stool and urine.

An excess of Kapham in the body is marked by such symptoms, as the whiteness, coldness and numbness of the body, heaviness of the limbs, a sense of drowsiness and languor, somnolence, and a feeling of looseness of the bone-joints.

* Several Editions read it as an additional text. † Several Editions read roughness of speech.

Similarly, an increased germination of lymph chyle (Rasa) in the body is manifest by such characteristics as, nausea, water-brash, and an increased flow of salivary secretion. A plethora of blood in the system gives a reddish glow to the complexion and the white of the eyes, and imparts fullness to the veins. An increase of flesh is marked by the rotundity and fullness of the buttocks and the lips, as well as of the penis, arms, and the thighs, and an increased heaviness of the whole body. An excess of fat in the body imparts an oily gloss to the skin. The sides of the abdomen are increased in bulk, and the body emits a fetid smell, and the person is assailed with cough and dyspnoea. An excessive formation of bone (abnormal ossification) is attended with such symptoms as the cutting of additional teeth and the abnormal development of any of the bone-structures. An excessive formation of marrow gives rise to a heaviness of the eyes and to the members of the body.

An excess of semen in the body is marked by an excessive flow of that fluid and gives rise to the formation of gravels (concretions) in the bladder which are known as Shukrashmari. An abnormal increase in the formation of fecal matter is attended with distension of the abdomen and colic pains in the loins and the intestines. An excessive formation of urine is manifest by constant urging for micturition and distension of the bladder, attended by a kind of gnawing or aching pain.

Similarly, an increased secretion of perspiration is attended with an itching of the skin which emits a bad odour. An excess in the quantity of catamenial blood * gives rise to an aching of the limbs and an excessive flow. So also an excess in the quantity of the breast-milk is attended with frequent secretions of that fluid, and with inflammation and pain in the mammas. An excessive growth of the faetus in the uterus tends to abnormally swell the region of the abdomen, and is accompanied by anasarca, or dropsy, of the lower extremities (phlegmasia dolens).

These abnormal excesses of the aforesaid humours and principles, etc. of the body should be checked or remedied with corrective (cleansing) or pacifying measures as would be indicated by their respective natures, so as not to reduce them to a smaller quantity than that in which they are found in the normal and healthy state of a body.