Mandala And Sandhi

The Mandalas of the eye are the following, viz., (1) the Fakshma-mandala (the circle of the eye-lashes), (2) the Vartma-mandala (the eye-lid) (3) the Sveta-mandaia (the Sclerotic and Cornea), the Krishna-mandaia (the choroid) and (4) the Drishti-mandala (the pupil). These circles are so arranged that the one preceding lies within the next in the list.* The Sandhis (which serve as lines of demarcation of the circles) already pointed out are six in number, the first binding the eye-lashes (Paksha-mandala) with the eyelids (Vartma-mandala), the second the eye-lids and the Sclerotic coat (Sveta-mandala), the third binding the latter with the Krishna-mandala (choroid), the fourth situated between the latter and the Drishti-mandala, the fifth lying in the interior corner (Kaninakas) and the last (sixth) in the exterior (posterior) corner (Apangas) of the eye. 7-8.

* Evidently some line or lines are missing here as the line cannot give a complete sense by itself. Ed.

The Patalas

Of the Patalas, two are in the eye-lid (Vartma-mandala) and four in the eye proper, wherein occurs the dreadful disease known as the Timira (loss of vision). Of these four the first or anterior coat (Patala) supports the humour Jala and light (Tejas), * the second coat or Patala (choroid) is supported by muscles; the third coat or Patala (Sceroim and Cornea) consists of Medas (lit. fat) and there is the fourth which is a fifth part of the whole and is known as the Drishti. There are, however, divisions and subdivisions of these coats. 9.

The different parts of the eye-ball are held together by the blood-vessels, the muscles, the Vitreous body and the choroid †. Beyond the choroid, the eye-ball is held (in the orbit) by a mass of Sleshma (viscid substance - capsule of Tenon) supported by a number of vessels. The deranged Doshas which pass upward to the region of the eyes through the channels of the up-coursing veins and nerves give rise to a good many dreadful diseases in that region. 10.

Purva-Rupa, Etc

Cloudiness of vision, slight inflammation, lachrymation, mucous accumulation, heaviness, burning sensation, sucking pain (D. R.-aching pain) and redness in the eyes are indistinctly manifest (in the incubatory stage) in such cases. In cases of an inflammation of the Vartmas (eye-lids) the eye seems as if studded with the bristles of worms (Suka) and attended with pain (as if pricked into with thorns) and a sensible impairment of the faculty of the eyes in detecting colours and in closing and opening the eye-lids freely. An intelligent physician will conclude from these symptoms that the eyes have been affected by the (deranged) Doshas, with a due consideration whereof the remedies should be (carefully) administered, otherwise the eye-diseases might become too serious. The simple maxim or principle to be followed in the treatment of a disease is simply to forego the primary pathological causes of that disease. The special remedial measures that would pacify the different Doshas, Vayu, etc. have been described in detail. 12-13.

* By "Jala" is meant here the serum (Rasa) in the skin, and by "Tejas" the blood in the veins (Sira) carrying the (Tejas) known as the A'lochaka.

† D. R. vessels, muscles and aqueous humour (Medas) arc most important for the maintenance of Krishna-mandala.