The Panakas

Well diluted treacle (Panaka) no matter whether it has been rendered acid or not with the admixture of Amla lemon juice), is diuretic and heavy in respect of digestion. Water saturated with treacle, Khanda (unrefined sugar), sugar or grapes, and made acid with the admixture of any acid substance, and scented with camphor, should be deemed the best of refreshing beverages. Water saturated with the (expressed juice of) grapes removes the sense of fatigue, allays thirst, and alleviates epileptic fits, and burning sensation of the body. Water potion flavoured with the (expressed juice of) Kola or Parushaka is agreeable and long retained in the stomach in an undigested state. The lightness or heaviness of a potion (Panaka should be determined according to the quantities, properties and preparations of the articles and substances that enter into its composition. Here ends the description of the specific properties of varieties of prepared food, etc. (Kritanna).

Now we shall describe the virtues of the articles of confectionary according to their tastes, potencies, and digestive reactions.

Confectionary - Such as is made with the modifications of milk is called the Kshira Bhakshyas (flour dissolved and stirred in milk with sugar, etc.) It is tonic, spermatopoietic, agreeable, appetising and aromatic, and tends to impart rotundity to the frame. It subdues the Pittam and does not belong to the group of inconpletely digestibles. Of these, the variety known as the Ghritapuras articles of food prepared by putting clarified butter in doughs of corn-flour) is strength giving and agreeable. It subdues ihe Vayu and Pittam, is spermatopoietic, and heavy of digestion, and tends to create new flesh and blood. The articles of food known as the Gaudikas prepared by putting treacle into doughs of corn-flour) are flesh-making, spermatopoietic, and heavy in respect of digestion. They subdue the Vayu and Pittam and generate the Kapham and do not give rise to any reactionary acidity after digestion. The articles of food bolonging to the groups of Madhumastakas, Sanyavas, and Pupas, are heavy in respect of digestion but are flesh building in their properties. Modakas are extremely indigestible. Sattakas (curd cream saturated with unrefined sugar and powdered Trikatus, and then filtered through a piece of clean linen, and seasoned with camphor and pomegranate seeds) impart a relish to the food. They are appetising, beneficial to the voice, heavy in respect of digestion, extremely palatable and strength-giving. They subdue the Vayu and Pittam (Kapham according to others. Vishyandana * is agreeable, aromatic, sweet and demulcent. It deslroys the Vayu, and generates the Kapham and is heavy, and strength-giving. Articles of food or confectionary made of powdered wheat (Samita) act as constructive tonics, and subdue the Vayu and Pittam. Of these, the variety known as the Phenaka (Khaja of our present-day confectioners) is agreeable, extremely wholesome and light. Cakes stuffed with Mudga-Veshavaras are long retained in the stomach in an undigested state, while those containing minced and pasted meat (Veshavaras) are heavy and flesh building in their properties. Confectionary known as the Palalas (a preparation of treacle, pasted sesamum and corn flour) generates the Kapham; while the Shashkulis (Luchis and Kachuris of our modern confectioners) tend to increase the Pittam and Kapham in the organism. Cakes made of powdered rice (Pishtakas) are heat-making in their potency and tend to enrage or aggravate the Kapham and Pittam. They further give rise to a reactionary acidity after digestion, and are specially heavy in respect of digestion, and are slightly strength-imparting. Confectionary made of Vaidalas (such as the Mudga pulse etc.) has an astringent taste, is light in respect of digestion, subdues the Vayu and Kapham, is purgative, and tends to restore the Pittam to its normal state, though apt to be long retained in the stomach in an undigested state. Cakes made of Masha pulse are tonic, spermatopoietic and heavy of digestion. Similarly, those that are made of Kurchika are heavy in respect of digestion and do not inordinately generate the Pittam. Articles of confectionary made of sprouting Mudgas, etc., are heavy of digestion, generate the Vayu and Pittam, give rise to a reactionary acidity after digestion, and tend to bring on nausea and waterbrash (Utklehsha), besides producing a parched condition in the organism, and also affecting 69 the eye-sight. Confectionary fried in clarified butter has an agreeable taste and aroma, is light, spermatopoietic, and tonic, subdues the Vayu and Pittam, and tends to improve the complexion and invigorate the eyesight. Similarly, that which is fried in oil is heavy as regards digestion, pungent in its digestive reaction, and heat-making in potency. It destroys the Vayu, generates the Pittam and tends to affect the sight and produces cutaneous affections. Confectionary made of fruit, meat, modifications of sugar-cane juice (treacle, sugar, etc.), sesamum and Masha pulse is tonic, heavy of digestion, tissue-building and palatable. Articles of food fried in broken vessels of baked clay, or cooked over a charcoal fire should be considered as light in respect of digestion and as possessed of the virtue of aggravating the bodily Vayu, while those that are prepared with lumps of curdled milk should be considered as heavy (of digestion) and as increasing the Kapham. Kulmashas (half boiled Chanakas or gram) generate the Vayu, produce loose stool, and are heavy of digestion, and tend to produce a condition of parchedness in the organism. Articles of food made of fried barley (Vatya prove curative in cases of Udavarta, cough, catarrh and Meha. Dhana fried barley) and Ulumva (Mudga pulse etc., boiled over a fire) are light of digestion and absorb the excess quantity of fat and Kapham in the body. Barley powder (dissolved in water so as to form a sort of thin, pasty potion) is flesh-building and spermatopoietic. It allays thirst, acts as an instantaneous tonic, subdues the Pittam, Kapham and Vayu, and is possessed of purgative properties. Made into thin pasty balls or lumps they become heavy as regards digestion, while transformed into a thin potion with the addition of a copious quantity of water they are known to acquire a contrary virtue (light). Barley powder used as lambative is easily and speedily digested owing to the softness of its consistency. Fried paddy alleviates vomiting and dysentery, and has an astringent sweet taste. It is appetising, tonic, and light of digestion, allays thirst, constipates the bowels, and tends to restore the deranged Kapham to its normal condition. Pulverised fried paddy alleviates thirst, vomiting, and a burning sensation of the skin, arrests perspiration, and proves curative in cases of haemoptysis and Dahajvara (a type of bilious fever characterised by unquenchable thirst and hyperpraxia). Prithuka (thrashed or pasted paddy) is heavy of digestion, demulcent and flesh-building, and increases the Kapham in the system. Taken with milk it acts as a tonic and is laxative and destroys the Vayu. Immature or newly-harvested rice has a sweet taste, is hard to digest and acts as a tissue-builder. Old or well matured rice brings about the adhesion of fractured bones and proves curative in cases of Meha. As a large variety of substances enters into the composition (of our daily food), a physician should prescribe a course of diet for his patient after carefully considering the nature of the food stuffs and the properties they acquire through combination and seasoning, as well as the natural longings of a person for a certain kind of food during the preponderance of certain deranged humours of the body.

* Powdered wheat treated with milk, clarified butter and treacle, and* made into a paste neither too thick nor too thin in its consistency is called Vishyandana.