The Genus Kudhanya

The several varieties of Kudhanyam are known as the Kora-dushaka, Shyamaka, Nivara, Shantanu, Varaka, Uddalaka, Priyangu, Madhulika, Nandimukhi, Kura-vinda, Gavedhuka, Varuka, Todaparni, Mukundaka, and Venu-yava, etc.

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They generate heat and have a sweet and astringent taste. They are parchifying and pungent of digestion, subdue the Kapham and tend to produce retention of the urine, and enrage the bodily Vayu and the Pittam. Of these the species known as the Kodrava, Nivara, Shyamaka and Shantanu have a sweet and astringent taste and prove curative in Sheeta pitta (urticaria). The four (black, red, yellow and white) varieties of Priyangus reduce the Kapham and produce a parched condition in the body, each preceding species being superior as regards its virtues to the one immediately following it in the order of enumeration. The species Madhulikas as well as the one known as the Nandimukhi is sweet, cool and demulcent. The species Varuka and Mukundaka are largely possessed of absorbing virtues. The species Venu-yava, is parchify-ing, and heat-making in its potency and is pungent of digestion, brings on retention of the urine, subdues the deranged Kapham, and tends to enrage the bodily Vayu. The several varieties of pulse (Vaidala) commonly used as food are known as the Mudga, Vana-Mudga, Kalaya, Makushtha, Masura, Mangalya, Chanaka, Satina, Triputa, Harenu, and Adhaki, etc.

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They are generally cool and pungent of digestion, and have a sweet and astringent taste. They generate the Vayu, arrest the flow of urine and the evacuation of stool, and subdue the Pittam and Kapham. The species known as the Mudga does not excessively generate Vayu in the system but tends to purify and invigorate the organ of vision. The green species is the best of all the varieties of Mudga pulse. The properties of Vanya (Mudga) are similar to those of the common variety.

The species of pulse known as Masura is sweet of digestion and constipates the bowels. The species Makushthaka is vermigenous, while the species Kalaya generates Vayu copiously. The species Adhaki subdues the Pittam and Kapham, and does not excessively agitate the Vayu in the organism. The species known as the Chanaka generates Vayu and is cooling in its potency. It has a sweet and astringent taste, and produces a parched condition of the body. It subdues the Pittam and Kapham, corrects the deranged blood, and tends to bring on a loss of the virile powers. The species known as Satina and Harenu are astringent in their virtues and tend to constipate the bowels. All the varieties of pulse except the Mudga and the Masura tend to produce a distension of the abdomen caused by gas or air in the organism (Tympanites or Adhmana).

The pulse known as the Masha has a sweet taste, is heavy and pleasant, laxative, diuretic, demulcent, heat-making, aphrodisiac, and specifically sperma-topoietic, tonic and galactogoguic. It subdues the Vayu and increases the Kapham. The species known as the Alasandra (Rajamasha) does not produce Kapham and is neither laxative nor diuretic on account of its astringent nature. It is sweet in taste and of digestion, pleasant, glactogoguic and improves a relish for food. The properties of Atmagupta and Kakanda seeds are simiar to those of the aforesaid Masha pulse. The species known as the Aranya-masha is astringent in taste, produces a condition of parchedness in the system, and is not followed by any reactionary acidity after being digested. The pulse known as Kulattha has an astringent taste, is pungent of digestion and is possessed of astringent properties. It proves curative in cases of urinary calculi arising from seminal derangement (Shukrashmari), abdominal glands, catarrh, and cough. The species known as the Vanya-Kulattha subdues the deranged Kapham, and proves curative in cases of Anaha, obesity, piles, hic-cough and dyspnoea. It may bring on an attack of hoemoptysis, and proves beneficial in diseases affecting the eyes. Tilam has a taste blended of the sweet and the bitter with a shade of the astringent. It is astrigent, heat-making, and produces Pittam. It is sweet of digestion, demulcent, tonic, and curative as a plaster for ulcers. It is bene-fiicial to the skin and teeth, improves the intellect and:digestion, is anuretic and heavy, helps the growth of hair, and subdues the deranged Vayu.

Of all the different varieties of sesamum, the black species is the best in respect of efficacy. The white species occupies a middle position as regards its virtues, while the remaining varieties should be regarded as of inferior quality.

Barley (Yava) is cooling, sweet and astringent in taste, and pungent of digestion. It subdues the deranged Pittam and Kapham. It is anuretic, beneficial to ulcers; and like sesamum, increases the quantity of stool and the emission of flatus, imparts firmness to the body and improves the voice, complexion and digestion. It is slimy and produces a condition of extreme parchedness in the system, removes obesity, and subdues fat. It subdues the deranged Vayu, is refrigerant and soothes (purifies) the blood and Pittam. The Atiyavas (a species of barley) is inferior to the barley species in respect of the preceding qualities.

Wheat is sweet, heavy, tonic, rejuvicient, sperma-topoietic, and improves the relish for food. It is demulcent and extremely cooling, subdues the Vayu and Pittam, and generates the Kapham. New wheat is laxative and brings about the adhesion of fractured bones or helps fermentation (Sandhanakrit).

The Shimvas (Beans) have an astringent taste and produce a condition of parchedness in the system. They are antitoxic, discutient, and reduce the Kapham and the power of sight. They are imperfectly digested and acquire a pungent taste in digestion, though ordinarily sweet in taste. They cause evacuation of the bowels and emission of flatus.

There are four variteies of Shimva such as, the white, the black, the yellow and the red, of which each preceding species is superior in virtues and qualities to the one immediately following it in the order of enumeration. The Shimvas are heat-making and pungent both in taste and digestion.

The two varieties of Saha, as well as the species of beans known as the Mulakashimvi and the Kushimvi, are sweet in taste and digestion, and strength-giving. They tend to subdue the action of the deranged Pittam.

Raw and unripe pulse beans (Vaidalika Shimvi) produce a condition of extreme parchedness in the system, are long retained in the stomach and but imperfectly digested. They are relishing but can be digested only with the greatest difficulty, causing the stomach to distend before being digested.

Kusumbha seeds are pungent in taste and digestion, and reduce the deranged Kapham. They are extremely unwholesome, owing to the fact of their being imperfectly digested. Linseed (Atasi) has a sweet taste, is heat-making in its potency, and pungent in digestion. It generates the Pittam and subdues the Vayu. White mustard (Shveta Sarshapa) is pungent in taste and digestion, strong and heat-making in its potency. It gives rise to a condition of parchedness in the system, and diminishes the Vayu and the Kapham. An excessive and continuous use of white mustard may bring on an attack of haemoptysis. The properties of red mustard seeds are similar to those of the white species.

A crop of Dhanyam grown in an unnatural season, or in any way diseased or blighted, or gleaned before it has ripened, as well as the one raised from a soil naturally uncongenial to its growth, or recently harvested, should be deemed to be of inferior quality.

The use of new (harvested within a year) rice tends to increase the secretions of the internal organs, while that of a year's maturity is light. *

Rice threshed out of paddy, which has commenced sprouting, is heavy, and is long retained in the stomach. It can be but imperfectly digested and tends to affect the organ of vision.

The maturity, preparations (Sanskara), and measures of corn from Shali rice to mustard seeds described in the present Chapter are as follows: - [Rice of two years standing should be regarded as well matured in time and excellent in quality. A thing, which is hard to digest like Vrihi, is made light by frying. Measures for use should vary according to the keenness of one's appetite.]

* Rice of more than two years standing becomes divested of all its nutritive elements.