The Meat Group

Now I shall describe the properties of the different species of edible meats. The flesh of animals such as those which are aquatic in their habits (Jaleshaya), or frequent marshy lands (Anupa), or dwell in villages (Gramya), or are carnivorous in their habits (Kravyabhuja), or are possessed of unbifurcated hoofs (Ekashapha), or dwell on high ground (Jangala), is generally used as food. Of these each succeeding kind is superior to the one immediately preceding it in the order of enumeration.

Again these animals may be roughly grouped under two broad sub-heads such as, the Jangala (living in high ground and in a jungle) and the Anupa (living in marshy places, or near pools and water-courses). The Jangala group may be further divided into eight sub-species, such as the Janghala, the Viscira, the the Ena (black deer), the Harina (red deer), the Rishya Pratuda, the Guhashaya, the Prasaha,the Parnamriga, the Vileshaya, and the Gramya. Of these the Janghala and the Viscira are the most important. The following animals belong to the Janghala (large-kneed group - viz.

(blue deer), the Kuranga (antelope) the Karala, the Kritamala, the Sharabha, the Shvadanstra, the Prishata, the Chitrila (Spotted deer), the Charushka, the Mriga-matrika, etc. These species of venison have a sweet and astringent taste, are light, keen, pleasant (palatable), laxative, and diuretic in their effect. They subdue the Vayu and the Pittam.

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The venison of the Ena species is sweet and astringent in taste, and palatable, and proves curative in diseases due to the deranged condition of the Pittam, blood and Kapham. It is astringent in its effect, imparts strength to the system, improves a relish for food and is a febrifuge. The venison of the Harina (red) species is sweet in taste and digestion, appetising, aromatic, cool, light, and suppresses the discharge of stool and urine and pacifies the deranged humours. Deer which are black are called Ena, while those which are red are called Harina. Those, that are neither red nor black, are designated as Kuranga. The venison of the Mriga-matrika species is cooling and proves curative in cases of haemoptysis, Sannipata diseases (due to the concerted action of the three deranged humours), consumption, dyspnoea, cough, and hiccough and creates a relish for food.

Birds such as the Lava, Tittiri, Kapinjala, Vartira, Vartika, Vartaka, Naptrika, Vatika, Chakora, Kala-vinka, Mayura, Krakara, Upachakra, Kukkuta, Saranga, Shata-Patraka, Kutittiri, Kuruvahuka and Yavalaka belong to the Vishkira species. [They are so called from the fact of their picking up their food after scattering it first with their bills and claws (Skr. kira, to scatter)]. The flesh of a bird of this group is light, cooling, sweet and astringent in taste and tends to pacify the deranged humours of the body.

The flesh of the Lava is light, has a sweet and astringent taste, is pungent of digestion, and possessed of astringent and appetising properties. It is highly efficacious in diseases due to the concerted humours of the body. The flesh of the Tittirs is slightly heavy, heat-making and sweet in taste. It is spermatopoietic, appetising and astringent. It improves the intellect and complexion, and subdues the three deranged humours. The flesh of the yellow (Gaura) Tittiri proves curative in hic-cough and dyspnoea, and subdues the deranged Vayu. The flesh of the Kapinjala is light and cooling, and proves curative in cases of haemoptysis, and is recommended in diseases brought about through the deranged condition of the Kapham or Vayu (Manda-vata). The flesh of the Krakara or of the Upachakra is light, pleasant (palatable), spermatopoietic, and appetising. It subdues the Vayu and Pittam and improves the intellect. The flesh of the Mayura is astringent and saline in taste, and is beneficial to the skin, helps the growth of hair, improves the voice, intellect, appetite and relish for food, and imparts strength and vigour to the organs of sight and hearing.

The flesh of a wild cock is demulcent, heat-making, and spermatopoietic. It acts as a diaphoretic, imparts tone to the voice and the organism, subdues the deranged Vayu, and is useful as a good constructive tonic. The flesh of a domesticated cock or fowl is possessed of properties similar to those of its wild prototype with the exception that it is heavy, and proves curative in rheumatism, consumption, vomiting and chronic (Vishama-Jvara) fever.

Birds such as the dove, pigeon Bhringaraja, cuckoo, Koyashtica, Kulinga, the domestic Kulinga, Gokshada, Dindimanaka, Shatapatraka, Matrinindaka, Bhedashi, Shuka, Sharika, Valguli, Girisha, Alahva, Dushaka, Sugrihi, Khanjaritaka, Harita, Datyuha, etc. belong to the group known as the Pratuda.

Metrical Texts

The Pratudas live on fruit, and their flesh has a sweet and astringent taste. It generates Vayu and produces a parched condition in the organism. It is cooling in its potency and reduces the Pittam and Kapham. It suppresses the discharge of urine and reduces the quantity of stool. Of these the flesh of the Bhedashi tends to vitiate the humours and to derange the three excrements of the body. The flesh of the Kana Kapota (wild dove) is heavy and has a palatable, saline and astringent taste. It proves beneficial in haemoptysis and is sweet of digestion. The flesh of the Kulinga is sweet, demulcent, and spermatopoietic, and increases the bodily Kapham. The flesh of the domesticated Kulinga is highly spermatopoietic, and proves curative in cases of haemoptysis.

Animals such as the lion, tiger, wolf, hyena arboreal leopard (Vriksha dipi), cat, jackal, bear, and Mrigaervaruka (a jackal-shaped, deer-eating species of tiger) belong to the group of the Guhashayas (cave-dwelling mammals).

Metrical Texts

The flesh of animals belonging to this family is sweet, heavy, demulcent and strength-giving. It subdues the deranged Vayu. It is heat-making in its potency, and proves beneficial in diseases affecting the eyes and anus.