Animals, which are generally found to frequent marshy places (Anupas) may be divided into five groups, such as, the Kulacharas (frequenting the shores of pools and lakes), Plavas (divers or swimmers), Koshastha (conchiferous aquatic animals such as, the molluscs etc.), the Padinas and the (piscatory) Matsya.
Of these, the elephant, the Gavaya, buffalo, Ruru (an animal of the deer species which casts its antlers and wanders roaming about in the forests in autumn) Chamara, Srimara (an animal of the Zebra species with green and red stripes), Rohita (red deer), boar, rhinoceros, Gokarna, Kalapuchchaka, together with the Nynku (a species of antlered deer) and the wild cow, etc., frequent the cool shores of swamps and lakes, and are accordingly included within the group of Kulacharas (shore-dwellers).
The flesh of an animal of this group is spermatopoietic and destroys the deranged Vayu and Kapham. It is sweet in taste and digestion, cooling, tonic, demulcent and diuretic, and increases the quantity of Kapham.
The flesh of the Elephant tends to produce a state of extreme parchedness in the system, and is lique-facient and heat-making in its potency. It vitiates the Pittam and has a palatable acid and saline taste, and destroys the Vayu and Kapham. The flesh of the Gavaya is demulcent and sweet in taste, and proves beneficial in cough and is sweet of digestion. It tends to increase sexual capacity. The flesh of the Buffalo is demulcent, heat-making (in its potency), sweet, spermatopoietic, pleasant and heavy of digestion It increases strength and virility and imparts firmness to the tissues, and is hypnotic and galactagoguic. The flesh of the Ruru is slightly sweet and leaves an astringent after taste. It is heavy, spermatopoietic and pacifies the Vayu and Kapham.
Similarly, the flesh of the Chamara is demulcent, cures an attack of cough, is sweet in taste and digestion and subdues the deranged Vayu and Pittam. The flesh of the Srimara is heavy and spermatopoietic, leaves an astringent after-taste in the mouth and tends to subdue the deranged Vayu and Pittam. The flesh of the boar (Baraha) or common pig is constructive, tonic, spermatopoietic and diaphoretic, and imparts a greater strength to the system. It is heavy (as regards digestion), demulcent, cooling, refrigerant, and pleasant, and destroys the deranged Vayu. The flesh of the rhinoceros has an as-tringent taste, and is pleasing to one's departed manes in the shape of an oblation (Pitryam). It is sacred, imparts longevity, tends to suppress the discharge of urine, produces a condition of parchedness in the organism, and destroys the deranged Vayu and Kapham. The flesh of the Gokarna is sweet, demulcent, mild (soft), sweet in digestion and proves curative in cases of haemoptysis, and generates Kapham in the system.
Birds such as the 62 Hansa, Sarasa, Krauneha, Chakravaka, Kurura (belong also to the Prasaha group) Kadamva, Karandava, Jivan Jivaka, Vaka, Valaka, Pundarika, Plava, Sarari-mukha, Nandimukha, Madgu, Utkrosha, Kachaksha, Mallikaksha, Shuklaksha, Pushkarashayika, Konalaka, Amvukukkutika, Megharava and Shvetacharana etc. belong to the Plava family. These birds are found to move about in large flocks.
The flesh of any one of this family is cooling, demulcent, and spermatopoietic and destroys the deranged Vayu. It proves beneficial in cases of haemoptysis, is sweet in taste and of digestion, and is possessed of laxative and diuretic properties. The flesh of the Hansa is heavy (of digestion), heat-making, sweet and demulcent. It tends to improve the voice and complexion, and imparts strength to the system. It is spermatopoietic, tissue-building and tonic, and proves curative in nervous diseases (Vata-Vikara).