The Kledakam

The Kapham, even though principally located in the stomach, permeates its four other distant localities with its peculiar watery or humid essence in virtue of its inherent attributes.

The Avalamvaka

The Kapham, located in the region of the chest, protects the joints of the arms, the neck and the sternum, and enables the heart to perform its natural functions with the help of the lymph-chyle derived from the assimilated food and its own intrinsic potency.

The Vodhakam

The Kapham, situated in the throat and at the root of the palate, lends its aid to the perception of tastes by maintaining the moist or humid character of the tongue.

The Tarpakam

The Kapham, situated in the head, cools and bathes the different sense organs with its own humid essence, in virtue of its natural humid attributes.

The Shlmeshakam

The Kapham, situated in the joints, keeps them firmly united, protects their articulation and opposes their separation and disunion.

Metrical Texts

The Kapham is white, heavy, oily, slimy and cool. In its normal state, it is possessed of a sweet taste, which is followed by a saline one in its reactionary transformation (chemical reaction) when deranged or vitiated.

Seats Of Blood

The seats of blood are in the liver and the spleen, as stated before, whence it helps its other receptacles to serve their proper functions.

Metrical Texts

The blood is red, oily or glossy, a little warm, and is possessed of an attribute similar to something of a sweet taste. It is heavy, and it emits a fleshy smell and resembles the Pittam in its reactionary process, or in other words, those factors, which derange the Pittam, vitiate the blood as well.

These are the locations of the deranged humours, which are respectively accumulated in them on account of the aforesaid causes. The deranged humours exhibit such symptoms as, fullness and stuffedness of the abdomen, or of any of the viscera (due to the action of the deranged Vayu; yellowness of the affected part (due to the action of the deranged Pittam, and diminution of the bodily heat, heaviness of the limbs, and a sense of languor (due to the action of the diseased Kapham), and a natural repugnance for causes (factors) which lead to their respective aggravations or accumulations. The medical treatment should be commenced as soon as the symptoms, peculiar to their accumulation, would become manifest.

Humours And Their Aggravations

Now we shall enumerate the causes which agitate and (aggravate) the deranged humours. The bodily Vayu is aggravated by such factors (conduct, practices and diet, etc.) as, wrestling with a wrestler of superior strength, violent gymnastic exercises, sexual excesses, excessive study, a headlong plunge into water or a leap from an inordinate height, running, a violent pressing blow, leaping over a ditch, a bounding gait, swimming, keeping of late hours, carrying of heavy loads, excessive riding, walking a long distance and the partaking of a food into the composition of which pungent, astringent, bitter, light or parchifying articles, or substances of cool potency, largely enter. Diets consisting of dried pot-herbs, Vallura, Varaka, Uddalaka, Kara-dusha, Shyamaka, Nivira, Mudga, Masura, Adhaki, Harenu, Kalaya, and Nishpava tend to aggravate the bodily Vayu.

Fasting, unequal or irregular meals, over-eating, voluntary suppression of urine, semen, and tears, or of the mucous secretions from the nose as in a fluent coryza, a forced stoppage of defecation, eructation or sneezing are the factors, which may be set down as the aggravating causes of the bodily Vayu.

Metrical Text

The bodily Vayu is naturally aggravated in a cold, cloudy or windy day, in winter, during the rains, in the morning and evening and especially at the close of digestion.