The water of rivers, which have their sources in the Sajhya mountains, begets cutaneous affections; while the water of those, which rise from the Vindhya mountains, produces Kushtha and Jaundice. The water of rivers, which rise on the mount Malaya, begets worms and intestinal parasites, while the water of those, that have their sources in the Mahendra mountain, begets elephantisis and abdominal dropsy. The water of rivers, which rise on the Himalaya, produces angina pectoris, (Hridroga), anasarca, diseases of the head, elephantisis, or goitre in persons using it for the purposes of life. Similarly, the water of rivers, which drain the eastern portion of the country of Avanti, or flow through its western part, begets piles; while the water of those, which rise on the mount of Paripatra is wholesome, strength-giving, and conducive to health.

Metrical Texts

The water of clear and swift-running rivers is light, while the water of those, which are sluggish in their course and are covered with mosses and other aquatic plants, is heavy. The water of rivers, which run through Marudesha (Modern Marwar) is possessed of a bitter saline taste, or is endued with a sweet taste blended with a shade of the astringent, and is easily digestible and strength-giving in its properties.

Every kind of terrestrial water should be collected early in the morning, since it is obtained the clearest and coolest at that part of the day; and since these two attributes by far form the most commendable traits in water.

Metrical Texts

The water, which gets the light of the sun in the day and reflects the moon in the night, and which, moreover, neither produces Kapham nor a parched condition in the body, should be regarded as one in virtue with the atmospheric water. Atmospheric water, collected in a good and proper receptacle, has the virtue of subduing the three deranged humours of the body, and acts as a pure tonic and elixir, its virtue varying with the excellence of the vessel in which it is contained. The cool and limpid washings of the gem known as the Chandrakanta Mani (the moonstone) should be regarded as possessed of the mystic virtue of warding off the attacks of monsters and demons, and of subduing the deranged Pittam. They are beneficial in fever and in cases of poisoning marked by a burning sensation of the body, etc.

Cold water usually proves beneficial in epileptic fits, in hot seasons, and in a burning sensation of the body due to the deranged action of the Pittam, in blood-poisoning, haemoptysis, abuse of wine (Madatya), loss of consciousness, fatigue or exhaustion, vertigo, Tamaka and vomiting. The use of cold water should be avoided in pain at the sides (pleurodynia ?), in catarrh, in rheumatism, in diseases of the larynx, in distention of the stomach by gas or air, in cases of undigested faeces, in the acute stage of fever, and just after the exhibition of any emetic or purgative remedy, in hic-cough, and immediately following upon an oily or fatty drink (Snehapana). River water produces Vayu and a parched condition in the body, and is light, stomachic and (Lekhana) liquefacient. On the contrary, that which is heavy, comparatively denser in its consistency, sweet, and cooling, brings on catarrh. The water of a lake (Sarasam) quenches thirst and is strength-giving, light, sweet and astringent. The water of a pond or a tank (Tadaga) produces Vayu, and is sweet, astringent, and pungent in digestion. The water from a Vapi (a large tank) subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapham, and generates Pittam, and is pungent in taste and is found to be charged with a solution of alkali. The water from a Chunti is a good digestant, sweet, and parchifying, though it does not give rise to Kapham in the system. The water from a well (Kupa) generates Pittam and is appetising. It subdues the deranged Kapham, and is light and alkaline. The water of a fountain is light, appetising, and pleasant, and destroys Kapham. The water of an Artesian spring is sweet, and subdues Pittam. It is antacid in its digestive reaction. The water from a Vikira is light, appetising, pungent, and is charged with potash (Khara). The water accumulated in an open field, or in fallow land, is heavy to digest and tends to augment the deranged humours of the body. The water of a Palvalam is possessed of the same virtue as the preceding one, with the exception that it greatly aggravates the deranged humours of the body. Sea-water has a fishy smell, and a saline taste; it aggravates all the three deranged humours of the body. The water of an Anupa (marshy) country is the source of many an evil. It is extremely condemnable, as it increases the slimy secretions of all the bodily organs, etc. The water of a Jangala country is free from the preceding baneful traits. It is faultless, acid in its digestive reaction (Vidahi), is possessed of all commendable traits, and is pleasing and refrigerant. The water accumulated in a Sadharana country is light, cool, pleasant and appetising (Dipanam).

Warm water subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapham. It is antifat, appetising, diuretic, (Vasti-shodhak) and febrifuge. It proves beneficial in cases of cough and dyspnoea, and is wholesome at all times. Water boiled down to a quarter part of its original quantity and then cooled down with all its froth and ebullitions removed, is light and limpid, and may be safely commended to the use of all. Water, boiled overnight, should not be knowingly given to a thirsty person inasmuch as it has acquired an acid taste and will augment the internal Kapham of the body, and becomes positively injurious. Water boiled and subsequently cooled down should be given to a person suffering from any of the diseases due to an abuse of wine or to Pittam, or from a complaint brought about through the concerted action of the three deranged humours.

The water found inside the shell of a cocoanut is heavy, * demulcent, cool, pleasant and appetising etc. It is diuretic, (Vasti-shodhaka) spermatopoietic, and subdues Pittam and thirst. The use of water boiled and subsequently cooled down is recommended in dysentery, burning of the skin, haemoptysis, diseases due to the abuse of wine, or to the effects of any imbibed poison, as well as in thirst, vomiting, catarrh, vertigo and loss of consciousness. Water should be taken as little as possible by a person suffering from any of the following diseases viz., loss of relish for food, catarrh, water-brash, oedema, any of the wasting diseases, impaired digestion, abdominal dropsy, cutaneous affection, fever, diseases affecting the eyes, ulcer and diabetes (Madhumeha, etc).

* Light according to Jejjada.