The Takra (whey) is sweet and acid in taste, and leaves an astringent aftertaste. It is light, appetising and heat-making in its potency, and has a parchifying effect upon the organism. Its curative efficacy is witnessed in cases of chemical or combinative poisoning, oedema, dysentery, diarrhoea, jaundice, piles, enlarged spleen, abdominal glands, non-relish for food, intermittent fever, thirst, vomiting, water-brash, colic and obesity. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Kapham, and is non-aphrodisiac. It is sweet in its digestive reaction and pleasant to the system. It proves curative in difficult urination, and in diseases due to the abuse of emollient medicinal remedies and applications.
A compound made of equal parts of curd and water and subsequently churned so as to have the contained cream or butter completely skimmed off, and which is neither too thick nor too thin, is called Takram. It possesses a taste blended of the sweet, acid and astringent. Waterless curd, churned with the entire butter or creamy substance inherent in it, is called Gholam (a kind of whey). The use of Takram is prohibited in the hot season, nor should it be given to a weak person, nor to one suffering from an ulcer, or laid up with an attack of haemoptysis, or to one suffering from epileptic fits, vertigo (Bhrama), or from a burning sensation in the body. The use of Takram is recommended during the cold months of the year, as well as to persons suffering from diseases due to the action of the deranged Kapham, or from suppression of stool or urine, etc., or from the effects of the deranged Vayu.
Again sweetened Takram soothes the deranged Pittam and aggravates the Kapham. Acid Takram subdues the Vayu and produces Pittam.
In a case of deranged or disordered Vayu, acid Takram should be drunk mixed with rock-salt, and with sugar in disorders of the Pittam, while in a case of deranged Kapham it should be mixed with Yavakshara and the powders of the drugs known as Vyosha. Takrakurchika (Inspissated milk) is astringent (Grahi), parchifying and hard to digest. It produces Vayu. The Manda or the residuary sediment of a compound made of the aforesaid Kurchika and Dadhi Takram (curd-whey) is lighter than whey. Kilata * is heavy, hypnotic, spermatopoietic and subdues Vayu. Similarly, Moratha † and Piyusha ‡ are sweet to the taste and restorative and aphrodisiac in their properties.
Fresh butter (Navanita) is an albuminous substance, and is light, sweet, cooling, demulcent, pleasant, appetising, slightly acid and astringent. It subdues the deranged Vayu and Pittam. It is spermatopoietic, antacid in its reaction, and conduces to the improvement of one's memory and intellectual capacities. It proves beneficial in cases of consumption, cough, dyspnoea, ulcer, piles and facial paralysis.
Butter (of a few days standing) is heavy. It increases the quantity of fat and Kapham, and imparts strength and rotundity to the body, and proves especially wholesome to children. Butter made of thickened milk is the best of all oily or (Kshira) substances. It is sweet, cooling and astringent; and imparts softness to the body, improves the eye-sight, and proves curative in haemoptysis and eye-diseases.
* Boiled milk curdled and subsequently heated and made into a paste is called Kilata.
† The milk of a cow recently delivered of a calf is called Piyusha till the seventh day after its birth, while, it is subsequently called Moratha till it is perfectly purified and becomes fit for the use of man.
Cream subdues the deranged Vayu. It is a pleasing (Tarpani) tonic, is spermatopoietic, demulcent, palatable, heavy and sweet in taste and digestion, and proves remedial to haemoptysis.
The virtues and properties of these modifications of curdled cow-milk have been described in detail since it is the best of all kinds of milk described before. The virtues and properties of similar preparations made from the milk of other animals should be regarded as identical with those of the milk of the animal out of which they have been prepared.