Oils, which belong to the category of fiery (Agneya) substances, are hot or heat-making in their potencies, irritating, and sweet in taste and digestion, and are constructive (Vrinhanam), and pleasant. They expand through the entire system immediately after being drunk or rubbed (Vyavayi), and are subtile, clear, heavy, and laxative (Sara). They tend to expand the bone-joints and contribute to their free and easy movements (Vikasi). They act as spermatopoietics (Vrishyam), and purify the skin, improve the memory, and impart softness to the skin and complexion. They are flesh-making and strength-imparting, and increase the firmness of the body. They are possessed of eye-invigorating virtues, and are anuretic, liquefacient (Lekhana), bitter and stomachic (Pachana). They cure Vayu and Kapham. They are vermifuge and produce a slight Pittam, leaving an astringent after-taste. They relieve aching pain in the head, ears, and the female organs of generation (Yoni), act as purifying agents in respect of the uterus, and prove curative in urticaria.
The use of sesamum oil is recommended in cases of cut, cleft, punctured, severed, lacerated, blistered, thrashed or contused wounds and ulcers, and in burns and scalds whether due to the application of heat or any vesicant alkaline solution, as well as in bites of wild beasts and birds, etc., and act beneficially in baths, unguents and lubrications.
Oil should be used in snuffing, and as enematas (Vasti), eye-drops, ear-drops, as well as in seasoning soups, curries and cordials, etc. It pacifies the bodily Vayu.
Castor Oil is sweet, hot (in its potency), irritating and appetising. It leaves a pungent astringent after-taste, and is subtile. It acts as a cleansing agent in respect of the internal channels of the body, and is wholesome to the skin. It is spermatopoietic, sweet in digestion (Vipaka), and rejuvenating. It purifies the semen, vagina, and removes vaginal and uterine disorders, and contributes to the preservation of sound health. It improves the memory, complexion and intellect (of its user), subdues the bodily Vayu and Kapham, and cleanses the system from all injurions principles by inducing purging.
Oils obtained from the seeds of Nimba, Atasi, Mulaka, Jimutaka, Vrikshaka, Kritavedhana, Arka, Kampillaka, Hastikarna, Prilhvika, Pilu, Karanja, Ingudi, Shigru, Sarsapa, Suvarchala, Vidanga or of Jyotishmati seeds, are irritating, light, non-heat-making in their potency, and pungent in taste and digestion. They act as a good laxative, and prove curative in diseases due to the deranged Vayu, or Kapham, as well as in cases of Kushtha, Prameha, head disease, and intestinal parasites.
Kshauma (Linseed) oil is sweet. It subdues the bodily Vayu and is strength-giving, and pungent in digestion. Devoid of any eye-invigorating properties, it is hot though demulcent, and heavy. It increases the Pittam.
Mustard oil is light, and acts as a vermifuge. It proves curative in itch and cutaneous affections, reduces Vayu, Kapham and fat, and is pungent, appetising and Lekhana (liquefacient). Oil obtained from the seeds of Ingudi is a vermifuge, and is light, and slightly bitter in taste. It proves curative in Kushtha and parasitic disorders, and affects the strength, semen and the eyesight of its user. The oil obtained from Kushumbha flowers is pungent in digestion and leads to the derangement of all the bodily humours. It is irritating, and acid in its reaction (Vidahi). It is devoid of any eye-cleansing property and brings on haemoptysis.
The Oils obtained from the Kirata-tiktaka, Atimuktaka, Vibhitaka, Narikela, Kola, Akshoda, Jivanti, Piyala, Karvudara, Surjavalli, Trapusa, Ervaruka, Karkaru, and Kushmanda seeds, etc. are sweet in taste, potency and digestion, and tend to pacify the deranged Vayu and Pittam. Cooling in their potency, they increase the slimy secretions of the organs, impair digestion, and help the copious evacuation of stool and urine.
The Oils of the Madhuka (Mania), Kashmarya, and Palasha seeds are sweet and astringent. They pacify the deranged Kapham and Pittam. The oils of the Tuvaraka and Bhallataka are heat-making, sweet and astringent, and leave a bitter after-taste. They prove curative in diseases due to the action of deranged Vayu and Kapham, as well as in obesity, Meha, cutaneous affections, and intestinal worms, and cleanse the system both by their emetic and purgative actions. The Oils obtained from the piths (Sara of such trees as, Sarala, Devadaru, Gandira, Skinshapa and Aguru, are bitter, pungent and astringent in their tastes, and act as purifying agents in respect of bad ulcers. The)' prove curative in skin diseases and destroy the deranged Vayu, Kapham, and intestinal worms. The Oils obtained from the seeds of Tumvi, Koshamra, Danti, Dravanti, Shyama, Saptala, Nilika, Kampillaka, and Shankhini, are bitter, pungent and astringent in their tastes. They serve to cleanse the system from all impurities and baneful principles through their purgative properties. They act as purifying agents in respect of malignant ulcers, and prove curative in diseases due to the deranged Vayu and Kapham, as well as in skin-diseases (Kushtha), and parasitic complaints. Yavatikata-oil tends to subdue all the deranged humours, is slightly bitter, and acts as a good elixir. It is appetising, acid, and liquefacient. It is holy and wholesome (Pathyam), and serves to improve the memory of its user. The Oil From Ekaishika seeds is sweet, and extremely cooling. It subdues the Pittam, increases the Kapham and aggravates the Vayu. The Oil of the seeds of mango stones is slightly bitter in taste, and extremely aromatic. It subdues the Vayu and Kapham. It is parchifying, sweet and astringent, palatable, and not highly Pittam-making.
The therapeutic properties of the oils from the seeds of fruits, which have not been specifically described in the present chapter, should be considered as identical with those of the fruits or seeds of which they have been so pressed out. All the vegetable oils (Sneha) described above should be regarded as possessed of the virtue of subduing the bodily Vayu, and they possess some of the properties, which specifically belong to sesamum oil. Sesamum oil is the most commendable of all oils inasmuch as the very word, which signifies oil (Tailam), is etymologically derived from Tilam (sesamum).
The oil, myosin (Vasa), fat, marrow, and Ghritam obtained from animals, which live in villages (Gramya), or frequent the marshy swamps (Anupa), or are aquatic (Audoka) in their habits, are heavy, heat-making in their potency, and sweet in taste. They subdue the bodily Vayu, while those obtained from Jangala (such as deer, etc.) or carnivorous animals, or from those possessed of unbifurcated hoofs, are light, cool in their potency, astringent in taste, and prove curative in cases of haemoptysis. The fat, marrow, etc. of animals of the Pratuda and Vishkira species (doves, pigeons, etc.) reduce the bodily Kapham. Of clarified butter, oil, myosin (Vasa), fat and marrow of animals each is heavier in digestion, and possesses a greater power of subduing the bodily Vayu than the one immediately preceding it in the order of enumeration.