Snakes known as Krishna-Sarpa, Mahá-krishna. Krishnodara, Sveta-kapota, Valá haka, Mahá-Sarpa, Sankha-pála, Lohitáksha, Gave-dhuka. Parisarpa Khanda-phana, Kakuda, Padma, Mahá-Padma, Darbha pushpa, Dadhi-mukha, Pundarika, Bhrukuti mukha. Vishkira, Pushpabhikirna, Giri-sarpa, Riju sarpa, Svetodara, Mahá-siras, Alagarda and Asi-visha belong to the family of Darvi kára snakes. 12
Snakes known as Adarsha-mandala, Sveta-mandala, Rakta-mandala, Chitra-man-dala, Prishata, Rodhra-pushpa, Milmdaka, Gonasa, Vrid-dha-gonasa. Panasa, Maha-panasa, Venu patraka, Sisuka, Madana. Palimhira, Pingala, Tantuka, Pushpa pándu, Shadga, Agnika, Vabhru, Kasháya, Kalusha, Párávata, Hastábharana, Chitraka and Enipada belong to the family of the Mandali species of snakes. 13.
Snakes known as Pundarika, Ráji-chitra, Angula-ráji, Vindu-ráji, Kardamaka, Trina-s'oshakas, Sarshapaka, Sveta-hanu,Darbha-pushpa, Chakraka,Godhumaka Kikvisada belong to the Rájimán family of snakes. 14.
The Galagoli, Suka-patra, Ajagara, Divyaka, Varshahika, Pushpa-s'akali, Jyoti-ratha, Kshirika, Pushpaka, Ahi-patáka, Andháhika, Gaurákika and the Vriks'he-saya belong to the Nirvisha (non-venomous) group of snakes. 15.
The Vaikaranja snakes are the cross-bred of the above first three species, viz., Darvi-kara, etc., and are known as Mákuli, Potagala and Snigdha-ráji. Those born of a Krishna-sarpa father and Gonasi mother or the contrary are known as Makuli, A Rajila father and Gonasi mother or the contrary bring forth a (hybrid species known as the) Potagala, and a Krishna-sarpa father and a Rájimati mother or the contrary produce a Snigdha-ráji snake. According to several authorities, the poison of a snake of the first of these three hybrid sub families partakes of the nature of that of its father while that of the remaining two partakes of the nature of their mother. 16.
Seven other sub-families arise out of the three aforesaid families of Vaikaranja snakes and are known as Divyelaka, Lodhra-pushpaka, Ráji chitraka, Potagala, Pushpábhikirna, Darbha-pushpa and Vellitaka. Of these the first three species resemble the Rájila and the last four resemble the Mandali species of snakes. Thus we have finished describing the eighty different families of snakes. 17.
The eyes, the tongue, the mouth and the head of a male serpent are large, while those of a female snake are small. Those which partake of both these features and are mild-venomed and not (easily) irritable, should be considered as hermaphrodite (Napumsaka). 18.
Why does snake-poison prove instantaneously fatal like a sharp sword, thunder-bolt or fire? Why is it that a case of snake bite, if neglected even for a very short time (Muhurta) at the outset, terminates in the death of the patient without (even) giving him an opportunity of speaking? 19-20.
From the general characteristics of the bites, it should be presumed that they may be divided into three kinds. We shall, therefore, describe in detail the specific features of the bites of these three kinds (instead of all of them separately). It will be both beneficial to the patient and will leave no room for the confusion of the physician. From the specific features of these three kinds of snake-bites should be inferred all other snakebites. 21.