In the first stage of bite by a Mandali snake, the poison affects the blood (vascular system), which being thus vitiated produces shivering (lit. coldness) followed by a burning sensation in the body and pallor (yellowness) of the skin. In the second stage the poison contaminates the flesh which causes an extreme yellowness of complexion attended with a burning sensation in the body and yellowness about the seat of the bite. In the third stage, the poison affects the principle of Medas (adipose tissues) producing numbness of the eyes, thirst, slimy exudation from the wound (bite) and perspiration as in the case of a bite by a Darvi kara snake described before. In the fourth stage, it enters the Koshtha (cavity of the trunk) and produces fever. In the fifth stage, it produces a burning sensation throughout the whole organism. The sixth and the seventh stages are identical with those of the foregoing (Darvi-kara bite). 27.
The poison of a Rájiman snake in the first stage of poisoning, vitiates the blood whicht is turned pale yellow producing the appearance of goose skin of the victim who looks white. In the second stage, it contaminates the flesh, giving rise to an extreme paleness of complexion, prostration and swelling of the head. In the third stage, it affects the principle of Medas, giving rise to haziness of the eyes, deposit of filthy matter on the teeth, perspiraion and secretions from the nostrils and the eyes. In the fourth stage, it enters the Koshtha (abdominal cavity) and produces paralysis of the nerves of the neck (Manyá) and heaviness of the head. In the fifth stage, it gives rise to loss of speech and brings on S'ita-Jvara (catarrhal fever). The sixth and the seventh stages of the poisoning are identical with the preceding kind. 28.
A snake-poison is found to successively attack the seven Kalás or facio described before (in Chapter IV (NidáNam Of Bhag-Andaram (Fistula In Ano And Fistular Ulcers)). Sárira Sthána, and gives rise respectively to the seven stages of poisoning. The interval of time during which a deadly poison leaves a preceding Kala and, carried forward by the bodily Vayu, attacks the succeeding one, is called its Vegáhi-tara (the intervening stage) 29-30.
A lower animal bitten by a snake first becomes swelled up and looks steadfast and distresse d.In the second stage of poisoning, salivation, horripilation and pain in the heart set in. The third stage is marked by pain in the head and drooping of the neck and of the shoulder. In the fourth stage, it shivers, gnashas its teeth, drops down unconscious and expires. Some experts hold that there arc only three stages of poisoning in the case of a lower animal, the fourth being included therein. 31.
A bird, bitten by a snake looks stead-fast and becomes unconscious in the first stage of poisoning. The second stage is marked by an extreme agitated condition of the bird and the third stage ends in death. According to several authorities there is only a single stage of poisoning in the case of a bird. A snake-poison cannot penetrate far into the body of a cat, mungoose, etc. 32-33.
Thus ends the fourth Chapter of the Kalpa Sthánnm in the Sus'ruta Samhitá which treats of the specific features of the poison of a snakebite.