* The common example of an Arthapatti (presumption) in Sanskrit philosophy is 'Pino Devadatto diva na bhumkte,' (i. e., Fat Devadatta does not eat at day-lime), from which it is evident that he certainly eats at night, otherwise he could not have become fat.

Eka'nta is the term used to denote a thing which is certain in every case. For example - Trivrit causes purgation, and Madana-fruit produces vomiting. 20.

Aneka'nta is the term used to denote certainty in some cases and uncertainty in some other cases. For example - many authorities hold that 'Dravya' or the thing itself is the principal factor, some hold the Rasa' or taste (in a thing) to be the principal factor, some again hold the "Viryya" or potency to be the principal factor and others hold "Vipaka" or digestive reaction to be the principal factor. 21.

Purva-paksha is (the putting of) a question with an apparent objection. For example-(the question why are the four kinds of Vataja-Prameha incurable. 22.

Nirnaya is the reply to a Purva-paksha or question. For example - the (bodily; Vayu affects i. e. spreads over the (whole) body and then forces the urine through (the passage with the (vitiated bodily Vasa (grease) Medas (fat,) and Majjan (marrow). The Vataja cases (of Prameha) are, therefore, incurable. As has been said - the (bodily) Vayu affects i e. spreads over the whole body and coming in contact with the (bodily; Medas (fat), Majjan (marrow) and Vasa (grease) becomes vitiated and courses downward. The Vataja cases (of Prameha) are, therefore, incuiable. 23.

Anumata is the term used when an opinion of another is (quoted but) not refuted. For example - some authorities hold that there are seven Rasas or tastes. (Now, as this is not refuted it is said to be Anumata or sanctioned by the author). 24.

Vidha'na is the act of mentioning, at the beginning, the fact to be established. For example - the vulnerable or vital parts (Marmans) in the thigh are eleven in number, and this has already been stated to be established. 25.

Anagata'vekshana is the term used when something in the future is referred to in such terms as 'this will be dealt with hereafter'. For example - it can be said in the Sutra-sthana 'it will be dealt with in the Chikitsita-sthana'. 26.

Atikra'nta'vekshana is the term used when something in the past is referred to. For example - it can be said in the Chikitsita-sthana 'it has already been said in the Sutra-sthana'. 27.

Samsaya is the term used when examples of two opposite and dissimilar subjects are cited. For example - hurt to the Tala-Hridaya (Marmans in the hands and legs) is fatal ; amputation of the hand and of the leg is not fatal. 28.

Vyakhyana is the description or explanation of the details. For example - Purusha as the twenty-fifth factor has been dealt with in this book. While only the twenty-four factors constituting this body have been dealt with in other works 29.

Sva-samjna' denotes the specific terms specially used in any work and not in common with any other work. For example-the term 'Mithuna' (in medical works) means the two things, viz., honey and clarified butter. 30.

Udaharana* is the example of what is well-established or well-known in the world. For example -

* Udaharana has been recognised here as a technical term. But it should not have been recognised as such, since it has not been included in the list (see para 2). Had it been so, the number would have been 33 and not 32. Dallana prefers to regard the portionNecessity 300130 etc. as an interpolation and adding aafter the sentence takes it in continuation of the example of cooling measures should be had recourse to to guard against warmth. 31.

Nirvachana is the derivation of a term. For ex-ample - Ayus (life) is the subject-matter of this work, and a man gets (the means of) Ayus (longevity) from this work and hence it is called Ayurveda. 32.

Nidarsana is the term used when the meaning (of a word or sentence) is supported by examples. For example - just as the (digestive) fire in the Koshtha (abdomen) increases in contact with (the local bodily) Vayu, so also an ulcer increases when assisted by the (bodily) Vayu, Pitta and Kapha. 33.

Niyoga is the enjoining of something to be done as a duty. For example - only what is beneficial (Pathya) should be taken. 34.

Samuchchaya is the joining (of two or more connected but independent ideas) as such and such. For example - in the group of flesh, (those of) Ena and Harina (two kinds of deer), Lava and Tittira (two kinds of birds) and Saranga (spotted deer) are the principal ones. 35.

Vikalpa is the term used when something is said to be this or that, i. e., when alternatives are used. For example - either meat-soup or Yavagu (gruel) cooked with clarified butter (should be used in such and such a case). 36.

Uhya is the term used when something more can be understood by an intelligent man, though not definitely used. For example - it has been said in the chapter on Anna-pana-vidhi (Chapter XLVI, Sutra-Sthana) that Anna (food) is of four kinds, via., (1) in the previous para. His meaning is that the wordNecessity 300134 being not found in the sense referred to in para. 30, the reader is asked to find out a popular example.

Bhaksh, a (masticable) or the solid food that has to be bitten with the teeth before eating, (2) Bhojya (edible) or the solid food proper i. e., which has not to be bitten with the teeth, (3) Lehya (tambative) or the semi-liquid food that has to be licked like an electuary, and (4) Peya (drink) or the liquid food proper that has to be drunk ; but of these four kinds, two kinds only {viz., Anna and Paniya) have been mentioned (in naming the chapter). Here it is (said that the other two kinds) are) understood. For, when only two arc mentioned in respect of food and drink, the inclusion of all the four therein is easily comprehended. And why? Because the term ' Bhakshya ' is included in the term 'Anna '- both being of the same kind, viz., solid food ; and the term 'Lehya' is included in the term 'Peya' - both being of the same kind, viz, liquid. And the articles of food, though they are really of four kinds, are usually spoken of in the common language as being of two kinds only {viz., solid and liquid). 37.

Here have been fully described by me the thirty-two technical terms for the investigation into the essence of this Tantra (work). The intelligent man who is fully conversant with these technical terms - which work like lights, as it were, - is to be regarded as the greatest physician and to be held in great esteem. - This is what the Sage Dhanvantari says. 38.

Thus ends the sixty-fifth chapter of the Uttara-Tantra in the Sus'ruta-Samhita which deals with the technical terms used in this work.