The Simantas

The Simantas number fourteen in all, and are respectively situated about the place of each of the aforesaid Asthi-sanghata. Several authorities assert that there are eighteen Sanghátas. † 16.

The Bones: - According to the followers of the Ayurveda (general medicine), the entire number of bones in the human body is three hundred and sixty; whereas Salya-Tantram (the present work) counts only three hundred. Of these, one hundred and twenty are to be found in the (four) extremities, one hundred and seventeen in the pelvis (Sroni), sides (Párs'va), back, chest (Urah) and the region of the abdomen (Udara), and sixty-three in the neck and the regions above; thus numbering three hundred in the aggregate. ‡ 17.

* "Trika" generally means the sacral region, but Dallanan says that here it refers to the meeting of the two clavicles with the breastbone.

† According to them four more Asthi-sangatás are to be found over and above the fourteen already mentioned; these are - one above the sacrum, one above the chest, one at the junction of the thorax and abdomen, and one at the acromial end (of the Scapula).

‡ Pundita Gangádhara Kaviratna of Murshidabad in his famous commentary, known as the Tiká-jalpa-kalpa-laru, in the 7th. chapter of Sárira Sthánam in the Charaka Samhitá states: -

"In the surgical text-book of Sus'ruta the number of bones in the human body is given to be three hundred in all. Of these, one hundred and eight bones are in the four extremeties; one hundred and twenty-six in the pelvic cavity (S'roni), sides (Pars'va), back (Prishlha), (Aksha) collar-bones and breast (Urah); and sixty-six in the region

Bones Of The Four Extremities

There are three bones in each toe of the foot, thus making fifteen bones altogether (in the toes of each leg). Ten bones constitute the Tala (sole), Kurcha (cluster), and Gulpha (ankle) of each leg, and one forms the Páshni (heel); two bones are found in the Janghá (leg); one in the Jánu (knee), and one in the Uru (thigh); thus making thirty bones in one lower extremity. The same number holds good in the case of the other leg as well as in that of the two upper limbs. (Thus the bones in the four extremities are one hundred and twenty in all). 18.

Bones Of The Trunk

Five bones form the Sroni (pelvic cavity); of these four are found about the Guda (anus), Bhaga (pubis), and the Nitamva upward the neck. Thus the total number of three hundred is made up. Now there are three bones in each toe of the feet; this makes fifteen altogether. Seven bones constitute the sole (Tala), clutter (Kurcha), and the ankle (Gulfa). There is one bone in the heel (Páshni), two in the leg (Janghá), one in the knee (Jánu), and one in the thigh (Uru). Thus there are twenty-seven bones in one lower limb. The same number applies to the other lower limb as well as to the two upper limbs. Thus a total number of one hundred and eight bones is made up. There are five bones in the pelvic cavity (S'roni); of these there are two in the hips (Nitamba), and the pubes (Bhaga), anus (Guda) and sacrum (Trika) is constituted with one bone each. There are thirty-six bones in one side (Párs'va) and the same count applies to the other. There are thirty bones in the back (Prishtha); two in the collarbone (Aksttasanjna); seventeen in the breast (Ura); eleven in the neck (Grivá); four in the wind-pipe (Kantha-nádi); and two in the jaws (Hanu). There are thirty-two teeth. There are three bones in the nose (Nása); two in the palate (Tálu); one each in either cheek (Ganda), ear (Kama) and temple (S'ankha), making six together; and six in the cranium (Sira). Thus a total number of sixty-six bones is made up. (Hence) the total number of three hundred bones is made (with the grand total of the three foregoing totals). Thus the list of bones of a skeleton is described."

(hips), and the fifth one is the Trika or triangular bone (the sacrum). There are thirty-six bones in one Párs'va (side), and the same number in the other; thirty in the Prishtha (back), eight in the Urah (chest); and two more known as Akshaka (collar-bone). (Thus making one hundred and seventeen in all). 19.