Sandhis Of The Koshtha And Clavicles

There are three Sandhis about the Kapála or flat bone in the Kati (waist, hence pelvis); twenty-four in the vertibral column; twenty-four in the sides; eight in the chest; eight in the Grivá (neck); three in the Kanthas (windpipe); eighteen in the cords or bands (Nádi) binding the Kloma and the heart; thirty-two about the roots of the teeth, one in the region of the thyroid (Kákalaka); one in the nose; two in the eyes; one in each of the two ears, temples and cheeks (thus making six in all); two about the joints of the jaw-bones; two over the eyebrows; two above the temples; five in the Kapála bone of the fore-head and one in the head. 26-27.

Their Forms, Distinctions, And Locations

These joints may be divided into eight different classes (named after the objects which they respectively resemble in shape), namely Kora (hinged or lap-shaped), Udukhala (ball and socket), Sámudga (back of the palm), Pratara (raft), Tunna-sevani (seam-like or dove-tailed), Váyasa-tunda (crow-beak), Mandala (circular), and Sankhá-vartah (involutions of conch-shell). The joints in the fingers, wrists, ankles knee-joints and elbows (Karpura) belong to the Kora group. Those in the axilla or shoulder-joint (Kakshá). teeth, and hip (Vankshana) are of the Udukhala type. The joints in the region of the anus, vagina, shoulders (Ansa-pitha - i.e glenoid cavity) and hips, belong to the Sámudga form. The joints in the neck and the spinal columns, belong to the Pratara (irregular) type; while those found in the Kapála bones of the pelvis (Kati) and the forehead, are of Tunna-sevani (suture) form. The joints on either side of the cheek-bones (temporomandibular) belong to the Váyasa-tuntia type. The Mandala joints occur in the encircling Nádi of the heart, throat, eyes and Kloma. Sankhá-varta joints occur in the bones of the ears and the nostrils. The peculiar features of these different kinds of joints (Sandhis) are evident from their names. 28,

Metrical Text

Only the bone-joints have been enumerated and described; the joints of muscles ligaments and veins are innumerable. 29.

The Ligaments (Snáyu)

There are nine hundred ligaments (Snáyus) in the human body, of which six hundred occur in the four extremities; two hundred and thirty in the trunk (Koshtha) and seventy in the neck and upwards. (Of the six hundred ligaments in the four extremities), six ligaments are situated in each toe making thirty (in the toes of each foot); thirty in the Tala (soles), Gulpha (ankles), and the Kurcha (ankle-joint); thirty in the leg (Janghá); ten in the knee-joints (Jánu); forty in the Udara (abdomen); ten in the groin (Vankshana); thus making one hundred and fifty in each leg. The same number is found in the other lower limb and in each of the two upper extremities. (Of the two hundred and thirty ligaments in the trunk) there are sixty in the lumbar region (Kati); eighty in the back; sixty in the sides; and thirty in the chest. (Of the seventy ligaments to be found in the region above the clavicles) there are thirty six in the neck (Grivá) and thirty-four in the head. Thus the total number of ligaments in a human body is nine hundred. 30 - 33.

Memorable Verses

Now hear me describe the ligaments (Snáyus). They may be grouped under four distinct heads, viz., Pratánavati (ramifying or branching), Vritta (ring-shaped or circular), Prithu (thick or broad), and Sushira (perforated). The ligaments (Snáyus) which present in the four extremities and the joints belong to the Pratámavati type. The Kandarás or large ligaments are of the Vritta type; while those which arc found in the stomach (Amás'aya)or in the intestines (Pakvás'aya). and in the bladder belong to the Sushira type. The ligaments of the chest, back, sides and head are of the Prithu type. 34 - 35.

As a boat made of planks and timber fastened together by means of a large number of bindings is enabled to float on the water and to carry cargo; so the human frame being bound and fastened at the Sandhis or joints by a large number of ligaments (Snáyu) is enabled to bear pressure. An injury to, or diseases of, the bones, veins, joints or muscles are not so detrimental to the system as is the case if the Snáyus are affected in any way. Only the physician, who is acquainted with the internal and external ligaments (Snáyus) of the body, is qualified to extract a hidden and imbedded Salyam (extraneous matter etc.) from any part of the body. 36.