The Muscles (Pesis)

The muscles (Pes'is) number five hundred in all, of which four hundred are in the four extremities; Sixty-six * in the trunk (Koshtha) and thirty-four in the region above the clavicles. 37.

Muscles In The Extremities

There are three muscles in each of the toes, thus making fifteen in the toes of one leg; ten in the anterior part of the foot and the same number (ten) attached to the Kurchcha; ten in the sole and the ankle-bone (Gulpha, - malledi); twenty in the region between the Gulpha and the knee-joint; five in the knee-joint (Jánu); twenty in the thigh (Uru); and ten in the groin (Vankshana); thus making one hundred muscles in all in each leg. The same number is found in each of the other three extremities; (thus making four hundred in all). 38.

Muscles In The Koshtha

(Of the sixty-six muscles in the trunk), three are in the region of the anus (Páyu); one in the penis; one in the perineum (Sevani); two in the scrotum; five in each of the haunches (Sphik); two in the top or head of the bladder; five in the abdomen (Udara); one about the umbilicus; five along each side (of the spinal column), on the upper part of the back (making ten in all); six in the sides; ten in the chest; seven around the armpits and shoulders (Akshaka-Ansa); two in the region of heart and stomach (Amás'aya); and six in the region of the liver, spleen and colon (Unduka). 39.

* Gayádasa reads sixty in the trunks and forty above the clavicles.

Muscles Of The Head And Neck

(Of the thirty-four muscles found in this region), four are in the throat (Grivá); eight in the two jaw-bones (Hanu); one each in the regions of the throat (Kákalaka and Gala); two in the palate; one in the tongue; two in the lips: two in the nose; two in the eyes; four in the cheeks; two in the ears; four in the forehead; and one in the head. Thus the positions and distributions of the five hundred muscles (Pes'is) have been described. 40.

Metrical Text

The ligaments, veins, bones and joints etc., of a human body, derive their strength from the fact of their being supported by or covered over by the muscles. 41.

Extra Muscles In Women

Females have twenty extra muscles; ten muscles are to be found about the two breasts, five in each, which (muscles) attain their full growth during puberty; four muscles are present about the parturient passage; and of these (four) two are about the external and two in the internal orifices (of the vagina); three about the region of the os. and three along the passages of the ovum and sperm. The Garbhásáya or uterus is situated in the space bounded by the Pittás'aya (small intestine) and Pakvás'aya (large intestine) and the foetus lies in this during the period of gestation. * 42-43.

According to their position in the system, these muscles are found to be thick, slender, small, expanded, circular, short, long, hard, soft, smooth or rough. The muscles cover the veins, ligaments, bones and joints; hence their shape and size are determined by the exigencies (organic structures) of their positions. 44.

Memorable Verses

The muscles which are found in the penis and scrotum of a man as described before correspond to the covering of the uterus in the case of a woman owing to the absence of those organs in her body. The positions and classifications of the veins, channels, Marmas and arteries will be dealt with in a separate chapter. 45-46.

The vagina of a woman resembles the navel of a conch-shell in shape and is possessed of three involuted turns (Avartas) like the interior of mollusc The uterus (Garbhásaya - foetal bed) is situated at the third posterior involuted turn. The shape of the uterus resembles the mouth of a Rohit-fish (narrow at the mouth and expanded in the upper end). The foetus lies in a crouched or doubled up posture in the uterus and thus naturally at the time of parturition its head is presented at the entrance to the vagina. 47-48.