The Váyu in its normal state and coursing through its specific Sirás (vessels) helps the unobstructed performance of its specific functions viz., expansion, contraction, speech, etc. and produces the clearness and non-illusiveness of Buddhi (intellect) and the sense-organs, whereas a coursing of the said Váyu in a deranged condition through the aforesaid Sirás (vessels), gives rise to a host of such diseases as are due to the derangement of Váyu. 8.
The Pitta in its normal state and coursing through its specific Siras (vessels) produces the healthy glow of complexion, relish for food, kindling of the appetite, healthfulnoss and other good effects, characteristic of the Pitta, which however being aggravated and coursing through them gives rise to a host of Pittaja diseases. 9.
The Kapha in its normal state and coursing through its specific Sirás (vessels) smoothes and contributes to the firmness of the limbs and joints, improves the strength and produces all other good effects specially belonging to it, whereas the same Kapha, flowing through them in an aggravated condition, ushers in a large number of the Kaphaja distempers of the body. 10.
The blood in its normal state and flowing through its specific Sirás (vessels) strengthens the other fundamental principles (Dhatus) of the body, improves the complexion, aids the organ of touch in the proper performance of its functions and produces other functions characteristic of it in the body. Flowing through them in a vitiated condition, it begets diseases which are due to the derangement of the blood. 11.
There is not a single Sirá (vessel) in the body which carries cither the Váyu, or the Pitta or the Kapha alone. Hence each of the vessels should be regarded as affording an opportunity for conveying all kinds of the Doshas of the body, for as soon as they are deranged and aggravated they seem to flow through all the Sirás promiscuously. Hence they arc called Sarva-vahah. 12.
The vessels which carry the bodily Váyu (nerves) have a vermilion (yellowish red) hue and seem to be stuffed with Váyu. The Pitta-carrying vessels (veins) are coloured blue and felt warm to the touch. The Kapha-carrying vessels are hard, cold to the touch and white-coloured. The blood-carrying vessels (arteries) are red and neither too hot, nor too cold. 13.
Now we shall describe the Sirás (veins) which a surgeon should not pierce or open, inasmuch as it may result in death, or bodily deformity. An intelligent surgeon shall always bear in mind that sixteen out of the four hundred vessels in the extremeties, thirty-two out of the hundred and thirty-six vessels in the trunk and fifty out of the sixty-four vessels in the region above the clavicles, should not be opened or bled on any account. 14 - 15.
Of the one hundred vessels in a single leg, the one Jáladhará (which is attached to the connective tissue of the Kurchcha-Sirah) as well as the three internal ones, of which two are known as the Urvi-veins and the other as the Lohitáksha, together with the corresponding ones in the other leg and in the two hands, thus making sixteen in all, which are situated in the upper and lower extremeties, should be held unfit for opening. Of the thirty-two veins in the pelvic region (Sroni), eight such, known as the four)Vitapas (two on each side of the testicles) and the four known as the Katika-tarun as (two on each side) should be considered unfit for bleeding or opening. Of the sixteen veins (eight on each side) at the sides, the one which courses upward from each of the two sides and is attached to the Marma known as the Párs'va-Sandhi, should be considered unfit for similar purposes. Of the twenty-four Sirás which are found in either side of the spinal column, an incision should not be made into any of the two Sirás (on each side) known as the Vrihati and which run upward along either side of it (spinal column). Similarly of the twenty-four Sirás in the abdomen, the two along each of the two sides of symphis pubis should be held unfit for opening or bleeding. Of the forty veins in the chest, the two in the heart, two in the root of each breast and two in each of the Stana-rohita (muscle of the breast) and one in each of the Apastambhas and Apalápas, making fourteen in all, should not be opened. Thus thirty-two Sirás in the regions of the back (i e., the sides and the pelvic regions), the abdomen and the chest should be regarded as unfit for opening or other surgical purposes. 16 - 21. There are one hundred and sixty-four Sirás in the region above the clavicles. Of these the eight and four (making twelve and respectively known as the eight Mátrikás, the two Nilas and the two Manyás) out of the fifty-six in the neck and the throat, should be regarded as unfit for opening. Similarly the two veins in the two Krikátikás and two in the two Vidhuras, should be held unfit for similar purposes; thus making sixteen in all in the neck, Of the sixteen vessels (eight on each side), of the Hanus (Jaws), the two Siras about each of the joint of the jaw-bones should never be opened. 22.
Of the thiity-six * vessels in the tongue, sixteen are situated in the under-surface of that organ and twenty in the upper surface; of these the two speech-carrying and the two taste-carrying ones should be held unfit for venesection. Of the twenty-four vessels in the nose, the four adjacent to the nose proper and the one running into the soft palate should be held unfit for similar purposes. Of the thirty-eight vessels in the two eyes, the one situated at each Apánga should not be opened. Of the ten vessels in the two ears, the sound-carrying one in either ear should not be opened. Of the sixty vessels of the nose and eyes coursing through the region of the forehead, the four vessels adjacent to the sculp proper and the Avarta-Marma should be held unfit for opening or bleeding. One vessel (Sirá) in each of the two Avartas and the one in the Sthapani-marma should not be opened (on any account) Of the ten vessels in the temple, the one about each temple-joint should be held unfit for opening or bleeding. Of the twelve vessels in the head, the one in each of the two Utkshepa-Marmas, one in each of the (five) Simanta-Marmas and one in the Adhipati-Marma, should be held unfit for the purpose. No incision or opening should be made into any of these fifty vessels situated in the region above the clavicles. 23-31.
*Gayi asserts that there are eight each of the Váyu-carrying, Pitta-carrying, Kapha-carrying and blood-carrying S'irás in the region of the neck, thus making a total of 32 in place of 36 of the text.
He also holds that there are 28 in place of 36 S'irás in the tongue, 16 in place of 24 in the nose, 24 in place of 38 in the eyes, 16 in place of 10 in the ears and 8 in place of 10 in the temple. In the counting of the S'irás situate in the other parts of the body, he, however, does not differ from the text.
As the stem and leaves etc., of a lotus plant, originated from its bulb, spread over the whole surface of a pool or tank (lit: water), so the vessels emanating from the umbilicus of a man spread over his whole organism. 32.
Thus ends the seventh Chapter of the S'árira Sthánam in the Sus ruta Samhita which treats of the description and classification of S'irás (vessels).