Of these Kalás, the first is named Mánsadhará (fascia), in the contained flesh (bodily substance of the Kalá) of the Sirá (veins), Snáyu (fibrous tissues), Dhamani (arteries) and other Srotas (channels) are found to spread and branch out. 7.

Memorable Verse

As the roots and stems of a lotus plant respectively situated in the ooze and water (of a tank), do simultaneously grow and expand, so the veins etc. situated in the flesh, grow and ramify. 8.


The second Kalá is called Raktá-dhará (Vascular tissue of the blood vessels etc.). The blood is contained in these inside the flesh and specially in the veins (Sirá) and in such viscera of the body as the liver and spleen. 9.

Memorable Verse

As a plant containing latex in its tissues, when injured or pricked, exudes milky juice, so blood oozes out instantaneously on the flesh of the body (supplied with the Raktádhará-kalá) being injured. 10.


The third Kalá is called Medadhará (adipose tissue). Meda (fat) is present (chiefly) in the abdomen of all animals, as well as in the cartilages (small bones). The fatty substance present in large bones is called Majjá (marrow), 11.

Memorable Verse

Marrow is found inside large bones, whereas a substance similar in appearance and found inside other bony structures (cartilages) should be considered as Meda, mixed with blood. The fats, present in purely muscular structures, go by the name of Vasá (muscle-fat). 12-13.


The fourth Kalá is called Sleshmádhará (Synovial tissues) and is present about all the bone-joints of animals. 14.

Memorable Verse

As a wheel easily turns upon a well greased axle, so the joints moistened by the mucous (Sleshmá) contained in these sacs admit of easy movements. 15.


The fifth kala is called Purishadhará and being situated in the Kostha (abdomen) serves to separate the faecal refuse in the (Pakvás'aya) lower gut (from other ingested matters). 16.

Memorable Verse

This Kalá extends about the liver, upper and lower intestines and other abdominal viscera and keeps the foeces in the lower intestines (Un-dukam) separate and hence is called Maladhará-kalá 17.


The sixth Kalá is called Pittaphará-kalá; it holds (the chyme derived from) the four kinds of solid and liquid foods (in the Pitta-sthánam or biliary region) propelled from the stomach (Amás'aya or Grahani-Nádi) and on its way to the (Pakás'aya) intestines (for the proper action of the digestive juices upon it) 18.

Memorable Verse

The four kinds of food, viz. those that are chewed, swallowed, drunk, or licked, and brought into the intestines (Kostha) of a man, are digested in proper time through the heating agency (action) of the Pittam 19.


The seventh Kalá is called Sikradhará (semen-bearing), which extends throughout the entire body of all living creatures. 20.

Memorable Verse: The physician should know that like fat (Sarpi) in the milk, or sugar in the expressed juice of sugar-cane, the (seat of) semen is coextensive with the whole organism of a man (or animal).

The semen passes through the ducts situated about two fingers' breadth on either side (vas deferens) and just below the neck of the bladder and finally flows out through the canal. The semen of a man during an act of sexual intercourse with a female under exhilaration comes down from all parts of his body owing to the extreme excitement (engendered by the act). 21-33.

The orifices of the Artava - carrying channels (vessels of the uterine mucosa) of a pregnant woman are obstructed by the foetus during pregnancy and hence there is no show of menses (during gestation). The menstrual blood thus obstructed in its downward course ascends upwards; a part of it accumulates and goes to the formation of placenta (Apará) while the rest ascends higher up and reaches the breasts; this is the reason why the breasts of a pregnant woman become full and plump. 24.

The spleen and liver of the foetus are formed out of blood; the lungs are made of the froth of the blood; and the Unduka or faecal receptacle, of the refuge matter (Mala) of the blood. 25,

Metrical Texts

The intestines (Antra), the bladder (Vasti), and the anus (Guda) of the foetus are formed out of the essence of the blood and Kapham, baked by the Pittam into which Váyu enters as well. As fire fed by draughts of air refines the dregs of golden ore and transforms it into pure metal, so blood and Kapham acted upon by the heat of the Pittam are transformed into the shape of the intestines etc. in the abdomen. The tongue is made of the essence of the flesh, blood and Kapham. The Váyu, combined with heat (Pittam) in adequate proportion, rends through the internal channels into the flesh and transforms them into muscles (Pes'i). The Váyu, by taking off the oily principles of fat (Meda), transforms them into (Sirá and (fibrous tissues) Snáyu. the underbaked (Mridu) ones being converted into the Sirá and the overbaked (Kshara) ones into the Snáyu. The internal cavities (Asayas) of the body mark the spots or regions where the Váyu had constantly stayed in its embryo stage. 26-29. The kidneys (Vrikkasi are made out of the essence of the blood and fat. The testes are formed out of the essence of the blood, flesh, Kapham and fat. The heart is formed out of the essence of blood and Kapham; and the vessels (Dhamanis) carrying the vital principles of the body are attached to it (heart). The spleen and the lungs are situated below and beneath the heart on the left side, and the liver and Kloma (Pancreas?) below and beneath it (heart) on the right. The heart is the special seat of consciousness (Chetaná) in all creatures. Sleep sets in when this viscus heart) of a person becomes enveloped by the effects of the Tamas (principles of illusion or nescience). 30-31.

Memorable Verse

The heart which is of the shape of a lotus bud hangs with its apex downward, folding itself up during sleep and expanding with the return of wakening or consciousness. 32.