Qualitative Classes

Again these Marmas (vital unions of the body) are under five distinct heads, namely, Sadya-Pranahara, (fatal within twenty-four hours), Kalántara-Pránahara, (fatal within a fortnight or a month), Vis'alyaghna (fatal as soon as a dart or any other imbedded foreign matter is extracted therefrom), Vaikalyakara, (maiming or deforming) and Rujákar (painful) [according as an injury respectively produces the aforesaid effects]. Of these, nineteen Marmas belong to the Sadya-Pránahara group; thirty-three to the Kálántara-Pránahara group; three to the Vis'alyaghna group; forty-four to the Vaikalyakara group; and eight to the Rujákara group. 15.

Memorable Verses

To the Sadya-Pranahara group (fatal in the course of a day if anyway hurt) belong the four Sringatákas, one Adhipati, the two Sankhas, the eight Kantha-Sirás, the Guda, the Hridaya, the Vasti and the Nábhi. To the Kálántara-Pra'nahara group (fatal later on, if any way hurt) belong the eight Vaksha-Marmas, the five Simantas, the four Tala-Marmas, the four Kshipra-Marmas, the four India-vastis, the two Katika-tarunas, the two Párs'va-Sandhis, the two Vrihatis, and the two Nitamvas. To the Visalyaghna class belong the two Utkshepas and the one Sthapani. To the Vaikalyakara (deforming) group belong the Marmas, known as the four Lohitákshas, the four Anis, the two Jánus, the four Urvis, the four Kurchchas, the two Vitapas, the two Kurparas, the two Kukundaras, the two Kaksha-dharas, the two Vidhuras, the two Krikátikas, the two Ansas (shoulder), the two Ansa-phalakas, (shoulder-blades), the two Apángas (tips of eyes), the two Niáls, the two Manyás, the two Phanas and the two Avartas. A learned physician should know that the two Gulphas, the two Mani-vandhas and the four Kurchcha-Sirah (of the hands and legs) belong to the Rujakara group (painful if hurt). A piercing of the Kshipra-Marma ends in an instantaneous death; or death may follow at a later time. 16-21.

Firm unions of Mánsa (muscles), Sirá (veins), Snáyu (ligaments), bones or bone-joints are called Marmas (or vital parts of the body) which naturally and specifically form the seats of life (Prána), and hence a hurt to any one of the Marmas invariably produces such symptoms as arise from the hurt of a certain Marma. * 22.

The Marmas belonging to the Sadya-Pránahara group are possessed of fiery virtues (thermogenetic); as fiery virtues are easily enfeebled, so they prove fatal to life (in the event of being any way hurt); while those belonging to the Kálántara-Pránahara group are fiery and lunar (cool) in their properties. And as the fiery virtues are enfeebled easily and the cooling virtues take a considerable time in being so, the Marmas of this group prove fatal in the long run (in the event of being any way hurt, if not instantaneously like the preceding ones). The Visályaghna Marmas are possessed of Vataja properties (that is, they arrest the escape of the vital Váyu); so long as the dart does not allow the Váyu to escape from their injured interior, the life prolongs; but as soon as the dart is extricated, the Váyu escapes from the inside of the hurt and necessarily proves fatal. The Vaikalyakaras are possessed of Saumya (lunar properties) and they retain the vital fluid owing to their steady and cooling virtues, and hence tend only to deform the organism in the event of their being hurt, instead of bringing on death. The Rujákara Marmas of fiery and Vátaja properties become extremely painful inasmuch as both of them are pain-generating in their properties. Others, on the contrary, hold the pain to be the result of the properties of the five material components of the body (Páncha-bhautika). 23.

* Some are of opinion that hallucination, delirium, death, stupor and coma as described in the Sutrast ánam are the results of injuries to thes Mar as.