Some assert that Marmas, which are the firm union of the five bodily factors (of veins, ligaments, muscles, bones and joints), belong to the first group (Sadya-Prána-hara); that those, which form the junction of four such, or in which there is one in smaller quantity, will prove fatal in the long run, in the event of their being hurt or injured (Kálantara-Pránahara). * Those, which are the junction of three such factors, belong to the Vis'alya-Pránahara † group; those of the two belong to the Vaikalyakara ‡
* The Marmas, such as Stana-mula, Apalápa, Apastambha, Simanta, Katika-Taruna, Pársva-Sandhi, Vrihati, and Nitamva belonging to the Kálántara-máraka group, are devoid of Mánsa (muscles); and the 'Marmas' known as Stanarohita, Talahridaya, Kshipra, and Indravasti, belonging to the same class, are devoid of Asthi (bones).
† The Utkshepa marma, belonging to the Vis'alyapránahara group, is devoid of Mánsa (muscles) and Sandhi (joint).
‡ The Sthapani-Marma, belonging to the Vaikalyakara class, is devoid of Mansa (muscle), S'irá and Snáyu; the Lohitáksha-marma (of the same group) is devoid of Snáyu, Sandhi and Asthi (bones); the Jánu-marma (of the same group) is devoid of Mánsa, S'irá and Snayu: the Urvi-marma (of the said group) is devoid of Asthi, Mánsa and Snayu; the Vitapa-marma (of the same class) is devoid of Mánsa, Sirá and Asthi; the Kurpara-marma (of the same class) is devoid of Mánsa, S'ira, and Snáyu; the Kukundara-marma (of the same class) is devoid of Mánsa, S'irá and Sandhi; the Kakshadhara-marma (of the same class) is devoid of S'ira, Asthi, and Sandhi; the Vidhura-marma (of the said group) is devoid of Mansa, Sira. and Sandhi; the Krikatika-marma is devoid of Mánsa, S'irá, and Sandhi; the Ansa-marma (of the same group) is devoid of Mánsa, Snáyu and Sandhi; the Ansa-phalaka-marma group; and those in which only one of them exists belongs to the last or pain-generating type (Rujakara) *.
But the fore going theory is not a sound one, inasmuch as blood is found to exude from an injured joint which would be an impossibility in the absence of any vein, ligament (Snáyu) and muscle being intimately connected with it. Hence every Marma should be understood as a junction or meeting place of the five organic principles of ligaments, veins, muscles, bones and joints. 24-25.
This is further corroborated by the fact that the four classes of Sirá, or vessels (which respectively carry the Váyu, Pitta, Kapha and the blood) are found to enter into the Marmas for the purpose of keeping or maintaining the moisture of the local ligaments (Snáyu), bones, muscles and joints and thus sustain the organism. † The Váyu, aggravated by an injury to a Marma, blocks up (those four classes of vessels) in their entire course throughout the organism and gives rise to great pain which extends all over the body. All the internal mechanism of a man (of which a Marma has been pierced into with a shaft or with any other piercing matter) becomes extremely painful, and seems as if it were being constantly shaken or jerked, and symptoms of syncope are found to set in. Hence a careful examination of the affected Marma should precede all the foregoing acts of extricating a Salya from its inside. From that similar aggravated conditions and actions of the Pitta and the Kapha should be presumed in the event of a Marma being any way injured or pierced into. 26 - 29.
(of the said group) is devoid of Mánsa, Snayu and Sandhi; the Nilá, Manyá and Phana Marmas (of the same group) are devoid of Mánsa, Sandhi and Asthi; the Avarta-marma is devoid of S'ira, Snayu and Mansa; the Apánga-marma (of the said class) is devoid of Mánsa, Snáyu and Sandhi.
* The Gulpha, Manibandha, and Kurchcha-s'ira Marmas, belonging to the Rujakara group, are devoid of Mansa, S'ira, Snáyu and Asthi, i.e. Sandhi alone is present in these.
† Hence the piercing of a bone is attended with bleeding.
A Marma of the Sadyah-Pranahara type being perforated at its edge brings on death at a later time (within seven days), whereas a deformity of the organ follows from the piercing of a Kálántara-Máraka * Marma at the side (instead of in the centre). Similarly, an excruciating pain and distressful after-effects mark a similar perforation of a Marma of the Vis'alyaghna † group. And a Marma of the Rujakara ‡ class produces an excruciating pain (instead of a sharp one) in the event of its being pierced at the fringe. 30.
An injured Marma of the Sadyah-Pránahara type terminates in death within seven days of the injury, while one of the Kálántara type, within a fortnight or a month from the date of hurt (according to circumstances). A case of injured Kshipra-Marma seldom proves fatal before that time (seven days). An injured Marma of the Vis'alyaghna or Vaikalyakara group may prove fatal in the event of its being severely injured. 31.