There are six kinds of Pipiliká (ants) vis., the Sthula-s'irshá, Samváhiká, Brahmaniká, Kapiliká and the Chitra-varná. A bite by any of these is attended with imflammatory swelling and a burning sensation (in the seat of the bite) resembling those produced by contact with fire. 16.
Flies (Makshiká) may by divided into six species vis., the Kántáriká, Krishna, Pingaliká, Madhuliká, Kásháyi and the Stháliká. A bite by any of these is accompanied by swelling and a burning sensation. A bite by one of the Stháliká or the Kásháyi species, however, is marked by the preceding symptoms as well as by the eruption of pustules (Pidaká) with supervening symptoms in addition thereto. 17.
Mosquitoes (Masakas) are divided into five species, viz., the Samudra, Pari-mandala, Hasti-masaka, Krishna and the Parvatiya. A mosquito (Masaka)-bite is characterised by a severe itching and swelling of the affected locality; while the symptoms which mark a bite by a Parvatiya one are similar to those of a bite by fatally venomous insects, and a sting of the points of their antennae is followed by the appearance of pustules (Pidaká) attended with a burning sensation and suppuration therein, when scratched by the finger-nails. The characteristic features of a bite by Jalaukas (leeches) with the mode of treatment thereof have already been described. 18.
The poisons of the Gaudheyaka, Stháliká, Svetá, Agni-samprabhá, Bhrikuti and the Kotika belonging to their respective classes are incurable. 19.
Contact with the dead body, stool or urine of a venomous animal is accompanied by itching and a burning sensation, pricking pain, eruption of Pidaká (pustules), ulcers and Kotha as well as by a slimy and painful exudation. The local skin is found to suppurate and the treatment would be the same as in the case of a wound by an envenomed arrow. 20.
A bite which is neither depressed nor raised, but very much swollen with pain (round about), but unattended with any pain in the seat itself just after the bite, should be regarded as not easily amenable to any medical remedy. 21.
A bite by an insect of strong and acute poison should be treated as a snake-bite and the three-fold remedies to be employed in snake-bites according to the threefold divisions of snakes should also be employed in these cases. The measures of fomenting, plastering and hot washing would prove efficacious in these cases, except in the event of an insect-bitten patient having been found to have been fainting away on account of suppuration and sloughing in the seat of the bite, in which case all kinds of cleansing (emetic, purgative, etc.) and anti-poisonous measures should be adopted. 22-23.
Plasters of S irisha, Katuka, Kushtha, Vacha, Rajani, Saiudhava, milk, marrow, lard (Vasá), clarified butter, S'unthi) Pippali and Deva-dáru in the form of Utkárika (poultice-like preparation) should be used in fomenting (the seat of the bite). As an alternative, the fomentation with the drugs of the S'ála-parnyádi Gana in the same (Utkáriká) form should be considered equally efficacious in the case. 24.
In the case of a Scorpion bite, the affected part should not be fomented. It might, however, be fumigated with vapours of the drugs to be dealt with later on. The medicinal remedies (Agadas) applicable in the several cases are here separately described. 25-26.