The fiery principle (Tejadhátu) of the organism, which is the originator of all colours of the skin (complexion), happening to mix largely with the watery principle of the body at the time of conception, serves to make the child a fair complexioned one (Gaura-varna); mixed with a large quantity of the earth principle (Kshiti) of the body, it makes the chiid a dark complexioned one (Krishna-varna). In combination with a large quantity of earth and ethereal principles of the organism, it imparts a dusky (Krishna-s'yáma) complexion [to the full developed foetus). A similar combination of watery and ethereal principles serves to make the child dusky yellow (Gaura-s'yáma). Others on the contrary aver that the complexion of the child is determined by the colours of the food taken by its mother during the period of gestation. 34.
A child is born blind in the failure of the fiery principle (Teja-dhatu) of the organism in reaching the region of its still undeveloped eyes (part - where the eyes would be); so also a penetration by the same (Teja-dhátu) into its blood accounts for the blood-shot eyes of the child. Entered into the Pittam it makes the child a yellow-pupiled one (Pingaláksha). Entered into its bodily Kapham it makes it a white-eyed body and mixed with its bodily Vŕyu, a child of defective eyesight. 35.
As a lump of condensed clarified butter melts and expands if placed by the side of a fire, so the ovum (Artava) of a woman is dislodged and glides away in contact with an adult male *.
* Sus'rutá's theory is that ovulation occurs about the same time as menstruation and rather initiates the latter, and the shed ova are washed out with the menstrual flow, hence there is a possibility of conception on connexion during the period of flow. But when the menstruation stops of itself by the end of the third day, it also indicates that ovulation has ceased and no ovum is left to be fertilized, hence the question arises how can there be conception then on connexion on the fourth day and thereafter? The explanation (as in the following verse) is that the ovulating organ though quiescent at the time is again stimulated to activity by intercourse with a male and new ova are shed which are ready to be fertilized by the semen. - Ed.
A seed divided into two by the deranged Váyu within the (cavity of the) uterus (Kukshi) gives rise to the birth of twins, conditioned by the good or evil deeds of their prior existence. * A child born of scanty paternal sperm becomes an Asekya and feels no sexual desire (erection) without previously (sucking the genitals and) drinking the semen of another man. A child begotten in a sordid vagina is called a Sougandhika, whose organ does not respond to the sexual desire without smelling the genitals of others. The man who first becomes a passive member of an act of sodomy and then again commits sodomy with the woman (he visits) is called a Kumbhika (or Guda-yoni and is included within the category of a Kliva). 36 - 40.
The man who cannot copulate with a woman without previously seeing the sexual intercourse of another couple is called Irshaka. A child born of an act of fecundation foolishly or ignorantly effected during the menses of its mother by its progenitor by holding her on his bosom during the act is called a Shanda and invariably exhibits effeminate traits in his character. A daughter born of a woman riding on her husband during the act of sexual intercourse will develop masculine traits in her character. 41 - 43.
* Gayi interprets the term "Dharmetara" to mean evil deeds (other than goad) and quotes verses from S'rutis, S'mritis and Tantras on expiations of sin in support of his view.
Semen is developed in the four types of Kliva known as Asekya, Sougandhika, Kumbhika and Irshaka, whereas a Shanda is devoid of that fluid (Sukra). The semen carrying ducts of an Asekya etc. are expanded by the drinking of the semen as above described which helps the erection of his reproductive organ. 44-45
The conduct and character of a child and its inclination to particular dietary are determined by those of its parents during the act of fecundation. A boneless (i. e. with cartilaginous bones) monstrosity is the outcome of the sexual act in which both the parties are female and their Sukra (sexual secretion) unite some how or other in the womb of one of them. Fecundation may take place in the womb of a woman, dreaming of sexual intercourse in the night of her menstrual ablution. The local Váyu carries the dislodged ovum into the uterus and exhibits symptoms of pregnancy, which develop month after month till the full period of gestation. The offspring of such a conception is a Kalala (a thin boneless jelly-like mass) on account of the absence of the paternal elements* in its development. Such monstrosities as serpents, scorpions, or gourd shaped foetus delivered from the womb of a woman should be ascribed as the effects of deadly sins. 46-49.
The child of a mother whose wishes are not honoured and gratified during pregnancy stands in danger of being-born palmless, hunchbacked, lame, dumb or nasal voiced through the deranged condition of the Váyu of its mother's body. The malformation of a child in the womb should be ascribed to the atheism of its parents, or to the effects of their misdeeds in a prior existence, or
* Hair, beard, nails, teeth, arteries, veins, ligaments and semen are called paternal elements inasmuch as these are said to be inherited by the child from its father to the aggravated condition of the Váyu, Pittam and Kapham. 50 - 51.
A foetus in uterus does not excrete faeces or urine, owing to the scantiness of the fecal matter, etc. in its intestines and also to the obstruction and consequently lessened admission of the Váyu into its lower bowels. A child in the womb does not cry inasmuch as its mouth remains covered with the sheath of the placenta i.e. foetal membranes (Yaráu) and its throat is stuffed with Kapham. The processes of respiration, sleeping and movement of the foetus in the womb are effected through those of its mother. 52 - 53.
The adjustment of the different limbs and organs of the body of a child in the womb at their proper places, the non-development of hair on its palms and soles and the subsequent cutting and falling off of its teeth are spontaneously effected according to the laws of nature after the model of its own species. An honest, pious, erudite man, who has acquired a vast knowledge of the Sástras in his prior existence, becomes largely possessed of mental traits of the Sáttvika stamp in this life too and also remembers his prior births (Játismara). Acts similar to those, which a man performs in a prior existence, overtake him also in the next. Similarly the traits and the temperament which he had developed in a previous existence are likewise sure to be patent in the next. 54 - 55.
Thus ends the second Chapter of the S'árira Sthánam in the Sus'ruta Samhitá which treats of the purification of sperm and ovum.